Saturday, 25 October 2014

Simple instructions On The Holy Eucharist As A Sacrament And Sacrifice by The Very Rev. Geo. Edw. Canon Howe. Part 26.

From the Sanctus to the Pater

This, the most sacred portion of the whole Sacrifice, is called the " Canon of the Mass," because, derived from a Greek word meaning a rule, it is the fixed rule to be strictly followed by the priest, there being only five Feasts during the ecclesiastical year, on which a slight variation in the words of one prayer is at all tolerated ; apart from these, there is never any change. The Church has a most jealous care of this part of her Liturgy, and severely forbids any innovation here, on account of its venerable antiquity, which all writers seem agreed to admit.

As an instance of this, it may be stated that in the year 1815, at a time when devotion to S. Joseph, the foster-father of Jesus, was spreading and gaining favour throughout the Church, an application was made, for this very reason, that his name might be added to those already found in the Canon. The reply, however, was in the negative, and his name has never been introduced; no addition has ever been made since the days of Pope Gregory the Great, in the sixth century.

The whole of the Canon, portions of which are probably the work of the Apostles themselves, is said in an inaudible voice, so as to promote recollection and devotion, in both priest and people, at this most solemn time. Moreover, it is desirable to prevent such sacred words becoming too familiar, as they might do, if they were recited aloud on every occasion, like other portions of the Mass. Silence, therefore, prevails, and, like a mysterious veil, envelops the Divine Mysteries, recalling Our Lord's sublime silence, at the time of His Passion, and also serving to remind us of the ancient Discipline of the Secret.

During the Canon, the Celebrant frequently makes the sign of the Cross over the Elements on the Altar, both before and even after the Consecration ! In the former case, it is the usual manner of imparting a benediction or blessing to creatures. But, in the second case, the idea of blessing the true Body and Blood of Our Lord, present on the Altar, is altogether repugnant. Then, the idea is to recall to our minds the Sacrifice of the Cross and its continuance in the Mass ; or, it is a profession of faith that, in the Mass, Christ crucified is present as priest and victim.

In the first prayer of the Canon, the Te igitur, we beg that God may vouchsafe to accept the gifts that are being offered to Him, and to grant peace to His Church ; we likewise pray for the Pope, the Vicar of Christ and Head of the Church, for the Bishop of the diocese where Mass is being said, and finally for all members of the Church on earth.

The Memento of the Living is the second prayer of the Canon. Here the priest pauses a little while, to make a spiritual remembrance of those for whom he particularly wishes to pray, and especially of the person or object for which he is offering the Sacrifice.

A word should be said here on the ancient use of the Diptychs, often referred to in early Church history. The diptychs were folding tablets, on the inner sides of which were inscribed names of persons living and dead. Among the former were included the Supreme Pontiff, the Bishop, and the ruling Sovereign, those also for whose special benefit the Holy Sacrifice was being offered, who supplied the wants of the Altar, or contributed to the support of its ministers. In another column were inserted the names of deceased Faithful; to this reference will be made later.

These diptychs used to be read up to the assembled congregation, at High Mass by the Deacon, at Low Mass by the celebrant himself. This practice remained in vogue for many long centuries, till vanity led so many to have their names inscribed and announced, that in the eleventh century the Church thought well to discontinue what was proving to be a source of sin and disedification ; hence, the custom no longer exists, except in some churches of the East.

But a further instance of the Church's conservative spirit is seen in the fact that the letters N.N. are still to be retained in the Missal at this point, though the practice of reading up the names has long ceased to exist.

Next comes the Communicantes, wherein we beg of God to grant us His help and protection, through the merits and intercession of His Saints. The Mother of God and the twelve Apostles are first mentioned, and to their names are added those of twelve Martyrs, well known and honoured in and about Rome, who adorned the early days of the Church by shedding their blood in defence of her doctrines. Those who had died for the Faith, by being thus named in the Canon, were said to be canonised, that is, found worthy of being named at this point of the Mass; thus was canonisation originally effected.

A vestige of this is still retained at the present day ; for, when the Pope has solemnly declared any servant of God to be worthy of the honours of the Altar, he invokes him, in the Mass said on the occasion, after the other Saints named in the Canon.

While reciting the next prayer, Hanc igitur, the priest spreads his hands over the bread and wine, a ceremony borrowed from the Old Law, as we read in Exodus xxix. 10, 15, 19, where God commanded that Aaron should place his hands on the head of the victims he was about to offer in sacrifice. This action denotes that the priest charges the victim with his own sins and with those of the people whom he represents, the victim which is to mystically suffer and die instead of the sinner. What was symbolism in the olden day is reality now in the Christian Mass, wherein the Lamb of God, who took upon Himself the sins of the world, daily renews the sacrifice of Calvary for their expiation. As this prayer and its accompanying action so closely precede the Consecration, the Server here rings the bell, to remind the people of the near approach of the solemn moment.

During the next few words, five times does the priest again make the sign of the Cross over the oblations, recalling the five Wounds of Victim of Calvary, and reminding us it is the sacrifice of the Cross that is here being renewed.

And now we have reached the sacred moment of the Consecration, the essential act of the Sacrifice, when the Angels of Heaven are preparing to come down upon earth to adore their sacramental Lord. The words of this part of the Liturgy are almost the same as those of the Gospel, relating the institution of the Blessed Sacrament. Suiting the action to the words, the priest, in imitation of Our Lord, takes the bread in his hands, and raising his eyes heavenwards, as tradition says Our Lord did, he blesses it, and pronounces the mystical words: " This is my body," and behold! transubstantiation is thereupon effected—the bread has become the true Body of Christ!

How stupendous a change! How sublime a miracle! How awful an act! Yet how marvellously simple is it all! Man utters a few words, and God's love and power fulfil the wondrous change. It is a repetition of the act of creation : " Be light made : and light was made" (Gen. i. 3). It is a commemoration also of another sublime mystery, expressed in the simplest terms: " The Word was made flesh" (John i. 14). 22

At once the priest bends his knee to adore his Creator whom, all unworthy though he be, he now holds in his hands! The bell here rings gently, to remind the Faithful of what has taken place at the Altar, and invite their adoring worship. This tinkling of the bell should bring ease to our souls : there is joy in the very ringing of it, for does it not signify the new birth of the God-made-man, ever living to make intercession for us ?

" Sound, sound His praises higher still, And come, ye angels, to our aid : Tis God ! Tis God ! the very God Whose power both man and angels made ! "

This adoration of the Holy Eucharist is attested by all antiquity, even the earliest Fathers of the Church instructing their flocks to renew their faith in the Real Presence, and adore Him whom their faith acknowledges to have descended from Heaven to earth } surrounded by the invisible angels of His Court.

The priest rising immediately, elevates the Sacred Host for the Faithful to look upon and adore, symbolising the lifting up of Christ on the Cross. Reverence and devotion have led them to bow down during the whole time of the Consecration and Elevation, and the deep-rooted custom has become universal. Yet the very object of the priest's thus raising the Sacred Host is that the Faithful may rest their eyes on It and see their Lord in His sacramental form! To urge them to revert to the original idea, the late Pontiff Leo XIII. granted an indulgence to all such as should reverently look upon their uplifted Lord at this moment. Hence, such as assist at the Holy Sacrifice should raise their eyes, for a moment at least, and so justify the Elevation, which otherwise would have no meaning, while, at the same time, they will gain with ease the indulgence that is offered for the mere act of thus looking devoutly on the Sacred Host, as it is raised up before them!

The reader must here be reminded that this elevation of the consecrated elements did not take place till the eleventh century. In 1047 Berengarius, who has already been referred to, began to broach errors on the Real Presence in the Blessed Sacrament. These were promptly repudiated and condemned by the Church, and this ceremony — the Elevation — was unanimously adopted as a protest against the impieties and new doctrines of this heretic, and as a practical profession of faith in Our Lord's presence on the Altar, after the words of consecration have been uttered.

Devout Catholics must, during this solemn time, manifest both by outward demeanour and inward faith, the reverence they cherish towards the Eucharistic mysteries ; silent adoration is then their duty.' Silence during these moments produces a most impressive effect, and is by.all means to be encouraged.

Then follows the second Consecration, that of the wine in the chalice, with similar adoration and elevation. Thus two elements, bread and wine, are necessary for the Eucharistic Sacrifice, though one suffices for the Eucharistic Sacrament. This separate consecration of the bread and wine is, in a mystical sense, the painless immolation of the Divine Lamb, typifying that separation of His Blood from His Body, which took place on Calvary with the most painful reality.

It may be repeated here that, should the Celebrant die suddenly after either consecration, or be taken so seriously ill as to be unable to proceed further with the Mass, another priest must, if possible, be found to continue and complete it, even though (perhaps) he be not fasting; for, the Natural Law, requiring the completion of the Sacrifice, prevails over the law of fasting, which is merely of Ecclesiastical origin.

The first prayer after the Consecration is Unde et memores. The Mass of itself cannot but be pleasing in the sight of God, for Christ, the Victim, is His Own beloved Son, of infinite merit before him. Yet the priest and the Faithful also share in offering the Sacrifice, and this privilege should overpower them as they reflect upon their sins and unworthiness. Hence, as guilty beings, they here beg of God to accept their Sacrifice, as of old He was pleased to receive the offerings of Abel, Abraham, and Melchisedech. The sacrifices of the first two were, more than others, typical of the bloody Sacrifice of the Cross, while that of Melchisedech was a figure of the unbloody Sacrifice of the Mass. The Celebrant asks also that God's angel may carry the offering to the Altar on High, in sight of the Divine Majesty and His heavenly Court—a reference to the golden altar of the Apocalpyse viii. 3.

The sign of the Cross that the priest now makes over the consecrated elements is no longer here a blessing given, but a reminder that the Victim who died on the Cross now lies before us on the Altar. The Church avails herself of every occasion to impress on the minds of priest and people alike this great truth—that the Sacrifice of the Altar is the selfsame as that of the Cross. Hence, the frequent use of the Cross over the oblations, even after the Consecration.

The next point to notice is the Memento of the dead. The Church, from the days of the Apostles, has ever taught and practised prayer for her deceased children. It has ever been her belief that there is a Purgatory, or place of suffering after death, where those who die in the state of grace, but as yet not pure enough to enter Heaven, are detained for awhile, till their souls are sufficiently cleansed to appear in the presence of God. It was hardly likely, therefore, that the Church would pray for her living members, in this august Sacrifice, and omit to pray for those who are no longer with her on earth, but have entered the home of their eternity. Hence, we have at this point the " remembrance" of the dead, that is, the names of departed Faithful, inscribed on the Diptychs, were read up, and prayers were asked that they might be granted "a place of refreshment, light, and peace," that their sufferings might be mitigated, or even ended by their release from Purgatory and their entrance into Heaven. We are thus requested to pray, as S. Augustine remarks, " that such religious duty, whenever it becomes neglected by parents, children, relations, or friends, may be supplied by our pious and common mother, the Church."

Should a departed soul for whom Mass is offered be unable to benefit by it, either because eternally lost, or because already in Heaven, theologians commonly teach that such sacrifice is by no means lost, but the fruit of it becomes part of the general treasury of the Church, whence indulgences may be granted by the dispensers of God's mercy.

And next, the priest strikes his breast, like the Publican in the Temple, and utters aloud the words Nobis quoque peccatoribus, beginning the last prayer of the Canon. After interceding for the souls of the Faithful departed, he prays now for sinners upon earth, whose future is still uncertain and exposed to many dangers. By way of showing the earnestness of his petition, or as a sigh from the heart, he pronounces these first three words aloud, (the only words heard during the Canon,) all the rest being recited in a subdued voice throughout. Mention is made of Martyrs and Saints belonging to different orders and states in the Church, with whom we ask God to grant us, in spite of our sins, some part and fellowship.

At the end of this prayer, the priest holds the Sacred Host over the chalice and raises them a little from the Altar, and then replaces them. This was formerly the Elevation of the Mass, and, till the eleventh century, the only one. But it has been already explained how, during that century, the principal Elevation came to be made at the time of the Consecration, as a protest against the errors of Berengarius.

With the second (and now, minor elevation), the priest concludes the prayer, raising his voice, and saying per omnia secula seculorum, "World without end: amen." This ends the Canon of the Mass, and leads us into the last division.

Friday, 24 October 2014

The Life Of Fr John Gerard S.J. (A Hunted Priest) Part 26.

Tower Of London
"I however maintained I knew no such man. So when they found they could twist nothing out of me either by wiles or threats, they sent me back. But as I passed again through the hall where Master Page was with the others, I looked round from one to another, and said with a loud voice,' Is there any one here of the name of Francis Page, who says he knows me well, and has often come before my window to see me ? Which of all these is he ? I know no such person, and I wonder that any one should be willing to injure himself by saying such things.'

"All this while the gaoler was trying to prevent my speaking, but was unable. I said this not because I had any idea that he had acknowledged that he knew me, but for fear they might afterwards tell him of me what they had told me of him. And so it turned out. For they had told him already that I had acknowledged I knew him, and they had only sent for me then that he might see me go in, intending to tell him I had confirmed all I said before. But now they could not so impose on him. For when he was summoned, he immediately told them what I had said publicly in the hall as I passed through. The men in their disappointment stormed against the gaoler and me, but being thus baffled could not carry out their deception.

" A little later they released Master Page for money, who soon crossed the sea, and after going through his studies in Belgium was made priest 1 Thence he returned afterwards to England and remained mostly in London, where he was much beloved, and useful to many souls. One of his penitents was that Mistress Line whose martyrdom I have above related. In her house he was once taken as I said, but that time he escaped. A little after he obtained his desire of being admitted into the Society, but before he could be sent over to Belgium for his noviceship, he was again taken, and being tried like gold in the furnace, and accepted as the victim of a holocaust, he washed his robe in the blood of the Lamb, and is now in the possession of his reward. And he sees me now no longer detained in the Tower while he is walking by the water of the Thames, but rather he beholds me on the waters still tossed by various winds and storms while he is secure of his own eternal happiness, and solicitous as I hope for mine. Before all this however he used to say that he was much encouraged and cheered by hearing what I said as I passed through the hall, as it enabled him to detect and avoid the snares of the enemy.

" During the time I was detained in the Tower, no one was allowed to visit me, so that I could afford no help to souls by my words; by letter however I did what I could with those to whom I could venture to trust the secret of how they might correspond with me. Once however after John Lilly's release, as he was walking in London streets, two ladies, mother and daughter, accosted him, and begged him if it was by any means possible to bring them where they could see me. He knowing the -extreme danger of such an attempt endeavoured to dissuade them, but they gave him no peace till he promised to open the matter to the gaoler, and try to get him to admit them, as if they were relations of his. Gained over by large promises the man consented ; the ladies had also made a present of a new gown to his wife. They therefore dressing themselves as simple London citizens, the fashion of whose garments is very different from that of ladies of quality, came with John Lilly, under pretence of visiting the gaoler's wife, and seeing the lions that arc kept in the Tower, and the other animals there which the curious are in the habit of coming to see. After they had seen all the sights, the gaoler led them within the walls of the Tower, and when he found a good opportunity introduced them into my room, exposing himself to a great danger for a small gain. When they saw me they could not restrain themselves from running and kissing my feet, and even strove with one another who should first kiss them. For my part I could not deny them what they had bought so dear, and then begged for so earnestly, but I only allowed them to offer this homage to me as to the prisoner of Christ, not as to the sinner that I am. We conversed a little, then leaving with me what they had brought for my use, they returned in safety much consoled, for they thought they should never see my face again, inasmuch as they had heard in the city that I was to be brought to trial and executed.

"Once also Father Garnet sent me similar happy news, warning me in a letter full of consolation to prepare myself for death. And indeed I cannot deny that I rejoiced at the things that were said to me; but my great unworthiness prevented me from going into the House of the Lord. In fact the good Father, though he knew it not, was to obtain this mercy before me; and God grant that I may be able to follow him even at a distance to the cross which he so much loved and honoured. God gave him the desire of his heart; for it was on the feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross that he found Him whom his soul loved. On this same feast of the Holy Cross and anniversary day of this holy Father's martyrdom, I received, by his intercession I fully believe, two great favours of which I will speak further at the close of this narration; to which close indeed it behoves me to hasten, for I am conscious that I have been more diffuse than such small matters warranted.

" What Father Garnet warned me of by letter the enemy threatened also by words and acts about that time. For those who had come before with authority to put me to the torture, now came again, but with another object, viz., to take my formal examination in preparation for my trial. So the Queen's Attorney-General questioned me on all points, and wrote everything down in that order which he meant to observe in prosecuting me at the assizes, as he told me. He asked me therefore about my priesthood, and about my coming to England as a priest and a Jesuit, and inquired whether I had dealt with any to reconcile them to the Pope, and draw them away from the faith and religious profession which was approved in England. All these things I freely confessed that I had done; answers which furnished quite sufficient matter for my condemnation according to their laws. When they asked, however, with whom I had communicated in political matters, I replied that I had never meddled with such things. But they urged the point, and said it was impossible that I, who so much desired the conversion of England, should not have tried these means also, as being very well adapted to the end. To this I replied, as far as I recollect, in the following way:

"' I will tell you my mind candidly in this matter, and about the State, in order that you may have no doubt about my intent, nor question me any more on the subject; and in what I say, lo ! before God and His holy angels I lie not, nor do I add aught to the true feeling of my heart. I wish, indeed, that the whole of England should be converted to the Catholic and Roman faith, that the Queen too should be converted and all the Privy Council, yourselves also, and all the magistrates of the realm ; but so that the Queen and you all without a single exception should continue to hold the same powers and dignities that you do at present, and that not a single hair of your head should perish, that so you may be happy both in this life and the next. Do not think, however, that I desire this conversion for my own sake, in order to regain my liberty and follow my vocation in freedom. No; I call God to witness that I would gladly consent to be hanged to-morrow, if all this could be brought about by that means. This is my mind and my desire, consequently I am no enemy of the Queen's nor of yours, nor have I ever been so.'

" Hereupon Mr. Attorney kept silence for a time, and then he began afresh to ask me what Catholics I knew ; did I know such and such ? I answered, ' I do not know them.' And I added the usual reasons why I should still make the same answer even if I did know them, showing that this was not telling a falsehood. Upon this he digressed to the question of equivocation, 2 and began to inveigh against Father Southwell, because on his trial he denied that he knew the woman who was brought forward to accuse him. 3 She swore that he had come to her father's house and was received there as a priest; this he positively denied, though he had been taken in that house and was found in a hiding-place, having been betrayed by this wretched woman. A dutiful daughter truly, who thus betrayed to death both her spiritual and her natural father! Christ our Lord, however, came not to send peace, but a sword to divide between the good and the bad ; and in this case He divided the bad daughter from the good parents. Good Father Southwell, then, though he marvelled at the impudence of this miserable wench, yet denied what she asserted, and gave good reasons for his denial, well knowing and thoroughly proving that it was not lawful for him to do otherwise, lest he should add to the injury of those who were already suffering for the faith, and for charity shown to him. Taking this occasion, therefore, he showed very learnedly that it was lawful in some cases, nay, even necessary, perhaps, to use equivocation ; which doctrine he established and confirmed by strong arguments and copious authorities, drawn as well from Holy Scripture as from the writings of the Doctors of the Church.

" The Attorney-General inveighed much against this, and tried to make out that this was to foster lying, and so destroy all reliable communications between men, and therefore all bonds of society. I, on the other hand, maintained that this was not falsehood, nor supposed an intention of deceiving, which is necessary to constitute a lie, but merely a keeping back of the truth, and that where one is not bound to declare it: consequently there is no deception, because nothing is refused which the other has a right to claim. I showed, moreover, that our doctrine did in no way involve a destruction of the bonds of society, because it is never allowed to use equivocation in making contracts, since all are bound to give their neighbour his due, and in making of contracts truth is due to the party contracting. It should be remarked also, I said, that it is not allowed to use equivocation in ordinary conversation to the detriment of plain truth and Christian simplicity, much less in matters properly falling under the cognizance of civil authority, 4 since it is not lawful to deny even a capital crime if the accused is questioned juridically. He asked me, therefore, what I considered a juridical questioning. I answered that the questioners must be really superiors and judges in the matter of examination ; then, the matter itself must be some crime hurtful to the common weal, in order that it may come under their jurisdiction ; for sins merely internal were reserved for God's judgment. Again, there must be some reliable testimony previously brought against the accused ; thus, it is the custom in England that all who are put on their trial, when first asked by the judge if they are guilty or not, answer 'Not guilty,' before any witness is brought against them, or any verdict found by the jury; and though they answer the same way, whether really guilty or not, yet no one accuses them of lying. Therefore I laid down this general principle, that no one is allowed to use equivocation except in the case when something is asked him either actually or virtually, which the questioner has no right to ask, and the declaration of which will turn to his own hurt, if he answers according to the intention of the questioner. I showed that this had been our Lord's practice and that of the saints. I showed that it was the practice of all prudent men, and would certainly be followed by my interrogators themselves in case they were asked about some secret sin, for example, or were asked by robbers where their money was hid.

" They asked me, therefore, when our Lord ever made use of equivocation; to which I replied, 'When He told His Apostles that no one knew the Day of Judgment, not even the Son of Man : and again when He said that He was not going up to the Festival at Jerusalem, and yet He went; yea, and He knew that He should go when He said He would not.'

"Wade here interrupted me, saying, 'Christ really did not know the Day of Judgment, as Son of Man.'

"' It cannot be,' said I, ' that the Word of God Incarnate, and with a human nature hypostatically united to God, should be subject to ignorance ; nor that He Who was appointed Judge by God the Father should be ignorant of those facts which belonged necessarily to His office ; nor that He should be of infinite wisdom, and yet not know what intimately concerned Himself.' In fact these heretics do not practically admit what the Apostle teaches (though they boast of following his doctrines), viz., that all the fulness of the Divinity resided corporally in Christ, and that in Him were all the treasures of the . wisdom and knowledge of God. It did not, however, occur to me at the moment to adduce this passage of St. Paul.

" They made no reply to my arguments, but the Attorney-General wrote everything down, and said he should use it against me at my trial in a short time. But he did not keep his word. For I was not worthy to enter under God's roof, where nothing defiled can enter. I have therefore still to be purified by a prolonged sojourn in exile, and so at length, if God please, be saved as by fire.

"This my last examination was in Trinity Term, as they call it. They have four terms in the year, during which many come up to London to have their causes tried, for these are times that the Law Courts are open. It is during these terms, on account of the great confluence of people, that they bring those priests to trial whom they have determined to prosecute ; and probably this was what they proposed to do in my case—but man proposes and God disposes, and He had disposed otherwise. When this time, therefore, had passed away, there was no longer any probability that they would proceed against me publicly. I turned my attention consequently to study in this time of enforced leisure, as I thought they had now determined only to prevent my communication with others, and that this was the reason they had transferred me to my present prison as being more strict and more secure."

Midsummer day came, when the Lieutenant of the Tower as usual sent in his quarterly bill to the Exchequer "for the diets and charges of certain prisoners in his custody from the Feast of the Annunciation of our Lady the Virgin 1597, until the Feast of St. John the Baptist then next following." This paper, 5 which bears the signatures of the Lords of the Privy Council, gives us the date of Father Gerard's transfer to the Tower. "Item, for the diet and charges of John Gerratt gent, from the 12th day of April 1597 until the feast of St. John Baptist next ensuing, being 10 weeks and a half, the sum of 6I. 13s. 4d.

"Item, for his keeper during the same time at 6s. 8d. the week . . . 3I. 6s. 8d.

"Item, for fuel and lights during the same time at 6s. 8d. the week. . . 3I. 6s. 8d.

"Item, for his washing during the same time . 5s."

It would have been interesting to see how the Lieutenant expressed himself when he sent in his Michaelmas bill, but unfortunately the paper is lost. By that time Father Gerard had ceased to be one of the prisoners in his custody.

In the Ordination list in the First Douay Diary there is the entry, 4 'Anno millesimo sexcentesimo, Aprilis i°, Franciscus Pageus Londinen. M."

2 Our readers cannot fail to remember the passage in Shakspeare's Macbeth which is most evidently aimed against the Catholic martyrs. The castle porter' Act. II. Sc. 3, imagines himself porter at Hell gate, and soliloquizes : " Knock' knock ! who's there? . . . Faith, here's an equivocator, that could swear in both the scales against either scale : who committed treason enough for God's sake, yet could not equivocate to Heaven." If these words were Shakspeare's they would be sufficient by themselves to settle the question of his Catholicity. No Catholic could speak thus of those who died for their faith The Cambridge Editors (Clarendon Press Series) reject the passage, and they quote Coleridge's criticism : « This low soliloquy of the porter, and his few speeches afterwards, I believe to have been written for the mob by some other hand "

3 This was the wretched Anne Bellamy, a young Catholic gentlewoman, who when in prison was ruined by Topcliffe and married by him to Nicholas Jones, the underkeeper of the Gatehouse. Troubles, Second Series, pp. 51—64.

4 In subornata gubernatione Rcipublicӕ.— MS. There is clearly some blunder here. Probably we ought to read " subordinata": yet even so, the phrase is not very intelligible. We have judged of the sense intended, by the context.

5 P.R.O., Pell Office, Exchequer Papers, Tower Bills: parcel 1, 1572— 1605.