Monday, 6 October 2014

The Life Of Fr John Gerard S.J. (A Hunted Priest) Part 9.


"In my new abode I was able to live much more quietly and more to my taste, in as much as nearly all the members of the household were Catholics ; and thus it was easier for me to conform to the manner of life of the Society, both as regards dress and arrangement of my time; and moreover I had leisure to pursue my studies.

"In this house I found some matters which needed change or improvement. Among other things, the altar furniture was not only antique but antiquated, and by no means calculated to excite devotion, but rather to extinguish it. But I saw that I must be cautious, lest the chaplain, who had been some time in the house, should take offence at these changes being introduced by me, especially as he could not but notice that the master of the house followed my advice in all things. But, by God's help, all went off admirably. As for the things that required immediate attention, I took care to get the master of the house himself to propose and carry them through. Then also I showed some church ornaments that had been given to me, the beauty of which quite captivated the good widow, and made her set about making as good for herself. But this was not all: the good priest hearing the master of the house extol the Spiritual Exercises, wished to try them himself for once. He went through them with great profit, and frequently declared that until he had made them he knew not what was the duty of a priest. He conceived moreover a great attachment to me, as I afterwards experienced by his alms and the chanty he showed me when I was imprisoned ; he ever consulted me in his doubts and difficulties ; he gained thrice as many souls as before to God and His Church, and was more esteemed of all. When an Archpriest was at length elected, he was appointed one of his assistants, 1 and remains so still.

" While in this residence (and I was there all but two years) I gave much time to my studies. At times I made missionary excursions, and not only did I reconcile many, but I confirmed some Catholic families in the faith, and placed two priests in stations where they might be useful to souls. I also received many general confessions ; among others that of a widow lady of high rank, who for the rest of her days applied herself to good works, and gave an annual sum of one thousand florins [100/.] to the Society; another widow gave seven hundred [70/.]"

Watson names as "gentlewomen, whom Gerard draweth to his Exercise," "the Lady Lovel, Mistress Haywood and Mistress Wiseman now prisoner," and he adds, " By drawing Mistress Fortescue, the widow of Master Edmund Fortescue, into his Exercise, he got of her a farm worth 50/, a year and paid her no rent." If Edmund Fortescue's widow is probably the second here mentioned by Father Gerard, Lady Lovel was almost certainly the first. She was Mary Roper, daughter of John, first Lord Teynham, the widow of Sir Robert Lovel, and in 1619 she founded the monastery of the English Teresian nuns at Antwerp. 2 Mrs. Elizabeth Vaux, with whom Father Gerard afterwards resided, was her sister.

Here it may be well to arrest the narrative for a moment, in order to anticipate a criticism that may be made on this and similar passages of Gerard's autobiography. Nothing could be easier than to say, in the spirit of the writers of the " Decacordon" and of the "Anatomie of Popish Tyrannie," that Father Gerard's object was money, and that he records his success ostentatiously— a hundred pounds here, seventy pounds there. But it must be remembered that we have before us in the autobiography we are printing, a private and confidential report, written for his Superiors, who wished to understand exactly how the difficult and secret work of the English mission was carried on. This is why Father Gerard shows where the money came from.

That those should have given freely of their substance, who held their lives cheap in comparison with the work of restoring the Catholic faith that they themselves tenaciously and fervently retained, is not surprising. " Is not the life more than the meat, and the body more than the raiment ? " The life of every one who harboured a priest was forfeited to the law. It was but natural that those who sheltered the priest should forward his work. Those who gave him hospitality at the risk of being hanged for it, are not likely to have begrudged him clothes to wear and horses to ride, that he might go where he was needed and mix in society without suspicion. When it was only as a gentleman that the priest could do the work that he had come to do, those that longed to see it done, took care that he went forth to it appointed as a gentleman.

The cost must have been enormous which in those days the wealthy Catholics had to meet, especially of those expenses that were defrayed by a systematic organization like the Society. In a few lines further on Father Gerard says that Father Garnet was obliged to have two or three houses always ready where his subjects might be sure to find him; and no wonder, for at a moment's notice the pursuivants might be upon him and he would require immediate shelter. A large sum might be expended upon a house and all its hiding places prepared, and suddenly it might have to be abandoned, owing to some act of treachery to which the Catholics were continually exposed. Then there was provision to be made of "Church stuff" and Catholic books. Books were necessarily dear.3 for they were printed on the Continent, and were seized wholesale. Church vestments and altar furniture are costly things, and they had to be constantly replaced, for sometimes they were swept away in searches a cartload at a time. The maintenance of the confessors in prison, who had to pay largely to their gaolers for exemption from the squalid miseries of the common prison, was a constant and very heavy charge to be defrayed] as in the days of the Roman persecutions, by their brethren in the faith. And the supply of future clergy had to be looked to, and promising boys were sent over to the seminaries to be trained for the priesthood, always at great expense. The missionaries were in duty bound to urge on the faithful to be liberal in their almsgiving, and to give something more than their superfluities. They spoke to willing ears, and nothing could have been nobler than the way in which the wealthy Catholics showed that they held their goods, as well as their lives, for the service of God. Watson and Bell and similar spirits delighted to attribute this generous devotion to "the Exercise," as if the Exercises of St. Ignatius contained what they called " cozenage." Father Gerard would not have denied the power of the Exercises to induce the resolution to." make friends of the mammon of iniquity;" but this, as all who have followed the Exercises of St Ignatius know by experience, is only because the eternal truths assert themselves with unparalleled force in the meditations of the Exercises. On the subject of almsgiving St. Ignatius proposes three rules, 4 and they are characteristically sober—" Do as you would advise a stranger to do for the greater glory of God: Observe the form and measure in your alms that you would wish you had observed when you come to die: Take that rule which at the Day of Judgment you would wish you had taken." All the "cozenage" is in these simple rules, and in the conclusion drawn by St. Ignatius that " in every state of life, due proportion kept, he is better and safer who the most restrains himself and diminishes his expenditure on himself and the state of his household, and most nearly approaches to our High Priest, Example and Rule, Christ our Lord." In other countries at this time wealthy Catholics were founding and endowing Colleges, as they had founded and endowed monasteries in former generations ; it was but natural that in England those who were touched by the sense of the eternal truths should give freely of their wealth to promote the missionary work on which the salvation of so many souls and the future of the country manifestly depended.

Father Gerard therefore continues in the same strain, but he speaks of nobler sacrifices than money. "At the same time I gave the Spiritual Exercises to some with considerable benefit First I had two gentlemen who were related to each other; they both resolved to enter the Society, and after they had settled their affairs, they went to France, where, having finished their studies, one of them, Father Thomas Everett, was admitted [into the Society], and is now a zealous labourer in the English Mission ; the second took priest's orders, but being rather pusillanimous wished first to return to England, and ill came of it."

Father Thomas Everett, more usually called Everard, entered the Society at Tournay on the 4th of June, 1593, having been ordained priest in the September of the previous year. After forty years of religious life he died in the odour of sanctity at the age of seventy-three. He was several times imprisoned, and more than once sent into exile. Towards the end of his autobiography Father Gerard narrates two anecdotes of this Father's missionary life." 5

Father Everard's relative is not named by Father Gerard, and the language of the original respecting him seems studiously obscure; but by Watson's help he is easily identified. "Two other," he says, "had the Exercise given them at that time by Father Gerard, viz., Master Anthony Rowse, of whom he got above 1,000/., and Master Thomas Everard, of whom he had many good books and other things." Father Gerard's obscurity of language is owing to the fact that Anthony Rowse abandoned the Catholic religion, and became a spy and betrayer of his brethren. He was the cause of the apprehension of the martyr Father Thomas Garnet, S.J., in 1607. It is instructive to observe that in his case, as in that of several other apostates, he had much to suffer before he fell. He was in Newgate 6 in February, 159-f, and he was banished in i6o6. 7 A neighbour in Suffolk, "Mr. Michael Hare, gave land which was sold for 300/., with obligation of paying the rent of it to Mr. Rowse in case of his repentance. The rent was twenty marks a year, which Rowse enjoyed for many years. After his death it was given for the use of some of the Society helping the poor Catholics in Suffolk or Norfolk." 8 This act of charity-enables us to know that the poor man repented and persevered for many years. His mother, " widow Rowse," is named by Tyrrell with the best Catholic families of the eastern counties, among whom we find Michael Hare of Brustyard Everatt, the Drurys of Losell, the Rookwoods of Coldham Hall, Lady Lovel, and others with whom Father Gerard was in communication. 9

We now come to the first mention of a family whose name will often recur in these pages. The Wisemans of Braddocks, in the parish of Wimbish in Essex, the elder branch of an ancient stock, are closely associated with the life of Father John Gerard for a very considerable time. In the autumn of 1591, to which period we have now arrived, the family consisted of the mother, Jane, widow of Thomas Wiseman, whose maiden name was Vaughan • William, the eldest son, and his wife Jane, the daughter of Sir Edmund Huddlestone; three other sons, Thomas, John, and Robert; and four daughters, Anne and Barbara, then at Rouen among the English Nuns of Sion, and Jane or Mary and Bridget, who were still at home.

Father Gerard first speaks of the two younger sons Thomas and John. Of John we know nothing more than Father Gerard tells, but Thomas is mentioned several times in the State Papers. In 1586 he went with his elder brother on a pilgrimage to St. Winifred's Well, and thus passing through Chester fell into the hands of a great persecutor of Catholics, William Chadderton, the Protestant bishop. Edmund Garnull, Mayor of Chester, writing 10 to Sir Francis Walsingham, September 5, 1586, about some pirates that were hindering ships from leaving Chester and Liverpool for Ireland, adds, " I have likewise thought it my duty to signify unto your honour that two gentlemen naming themselves Wiseman, being brethren, and born in Essex and coming thence (as they affirmed), were brought before me and the Lord Bishop of this diocese the last week, who alleged to have none other occasion to travel into these parts than occasioned to Hallywell [Holywell] to seek for ease of some infirmity wherewith they was detained ; and therefore, and in that we suspected their conformity in matters of religion, we sent them both to the Earl of Derby, whereof I have thought it my duty to advertise your honour."

A little later on in the year the two brothers appear in London in a "List of Bonds."11"November 17, 1586. Thomas Wiseman of Winsbyshe in the county of Essex, gentleman, bound in the sum of 50/. with a surety, to be at any time forthcoming within three days* warning being given at Richard Wiseman's house in St. Laurence's, Poultry, in London. November 17, 1586. William Wiseman, of the same town and county, bound as abovesaid to be forthcoming within three days' warning."

Leaving William Wiseman for a short time, we turn to Father Gerard's account of the two younger brothers Thomas and John. "I also gave a retreat to two fine young men who were brothers, who both came to the resolution of entering the Society. One of them [Thomas Wiseman] had gone through his course of humanities and philosophy at Cambridge, and had been a law-student in London for nine years, and being very clever and indefatigable in his application to study, he made such progress that I have known competent judges to rank an opinion of his as high as that of any of the most celebrated lawyers, whether of past or present times. He was so prudent and grave in his bearing, that Father Southwell said to me, at a time when the young man himself had never dreamt of changing his state, that if he had a vocation to our body none would be so fit for government as he. By the advice, then, of my host [Henry Drury of Losell], who was an intimate friend of theirs, they placed themselves under my direction and went into retreat. The younger brother [John] met with no obstacle whatever; but the elder during the first week was in a state of complete dryness. He afterwards found out the reason thereof, and removed it. I had counselled him to adopt certain regulations for the treatment of his body, which were comparatively unimportant, and, as he objected on the score of health, I yielded; but afterwards deeming this reluctance of his, though in a slight matter, a hindrance to God's grace, one day as I visited him to exhort and console him under his desolation, he threw himself at my feet, and, begging pardon, refused to rise until in token of full forgiveness I would allow him to kiss my feet. After that he was ever overflowing with consolation, and a light arose in his heart which showed him so clearly the way wherein he should walk, that there was no room left for doubt. Hence, though he had much to do both with his own affairs and the business of others before he could leave England, and had determined to sell his estate, so as to preclude all desire of returning, with such wonderful rapidity did he settle it all, that within five or six weeks he had started with his brother for Rome. Before his departure, among other alms-deeds, he gave to the Society from eleven thousand to twelve thousand florins [1,100/. to 1,200/.].

" This was a mark of God's special care for the Society at the period it began to increase in England ; for shortly after the capture of Father Southwell [June 30 1592] who was wont to reside in London, Father Garnet was obliged to take up his abode in that city that he might the more easily communicate with all our people, who were widely scattered, and might himself be in a more central position, and more easy of general access. But this entailed great expense, for as the persecution was more violent there than elsewhere, it was necessary that he should have two or three houses always ready for his use, and therefore-kept up at his own expense. But at that time we had few friends whose hands were open to supply our general wants. Father Southwell, while he was with us, had indeed a great benefactress [Anne, Countess of Arundel], by whose liberality he maintained himself and other priests, and kept a private house wherein he usually received the Superior when the latter came to London. It was here that I first saw them both ; and here also he kept a private printing press, whence issued his incomparable works. But after we had lost Father Southwell, the Society would have been reduced to great straits if God had not called those two persons of whom I have spoken to our assistance, to wit, the young law-student I have just mentioned [Thomas Wiseman], and my host [Henry Drury], who bestowed nearly one half of his goods upon our Society. " The two brothers, on their arrival in Rome, went to the novitiate of St. Andrew's [on the Quirinal] without delay; they completed their training under the names of Starkie and Standish, which they assumed as a remembrance of me, for under these I passed in the first and second county where I took up my residence. The younger of the two died holily (as I heard) at St. Andrew's; the elder, while pursuing his studies in the Roman College, being perhaps somewhat indiscreet in his fervour, fell into consumption, and coming some time after to Belgium, died at St. Omers, to the great regret but no less to the edification of all who knew him.

" Besides these, I gave the Spiritual Exercises to some others; who drew thence fruits of conversion and amendment of life. Two of their number were among the leading Catholics of the county; one of them got as far as the last day but one of the second week without any spiritual motion, but at that time the south wind, so to speak, blew over his garden, and elicited such copious showers of tears, that for three or four days he could not refrain from weeping; even when his affairs forced him to go out for a time, he could scarce speak to any one but in a broken voice with sobs; and he followed me about weeping, like a child one year old, so that the chaplain, whom I have mentioned above, was wont thereafter to call him ' the weeper' and to write about him— 'John the weeper wants this or that' or—'makes you a present of so and so' This gentleman abounded henceforth in good works, and died most happily.

"About the same time, I persuaded another of the Walpole family, Christopher 12 by name, to leave Cambridge.

I supplied him with a provision for the journey, and sent him to Rome ; where, having completed his studies, he entered the Society and was made a priest. He was sent into Spain, and died there, to the great sorrow of all, and the great disadvantage of his country."

The date of these retreats and vocations is shown us by the following extract from a letter 13 of Father Henry Walpole, the martyr, from Brussels, to Father Holt at the English College at Rome, dated August 22, 1591- "I send you herewith two blanks [letters, apparently blank paper] from Mr. J. Gerard, the one for yourself, the other for Mr. Per[sons], that is Peckam. You must put them in fear of the fire to make them speak [that is, being written in orange juice, you must heat them in order to read them]. I suppose he hath written in commendation of them who desire to be 222 [Jesuit 14], and came directed over to the purpose. Two be very virtuous gentlemen [Thomas and John Wiseman], and one of them a singular benefactor. They expect means to live (if it may be made over) of themselves. The third [Christopher Walpole] is my brother, who hath spent two years in your Seminary, able to begin his course. I hope he will do as well as the others. I wish them with you, if not to the great charge of the College."

The spies kept their eyes on Thomas Wiseman, but of John his brother they seem to have known nothing. Thus in a " Note of such as are known to be beyond the seas and of their friends in England, as near as is known," 15 we have: "Thomas Wiseman, son of Mrs. Jane Wiseman of Wimbish in Essex. Thomas is a Jesuit at Rome, and two of her daughters that are nuns, and two more of her daughters that went over lately, and [had] Father Edmund's [William Weston's] blessing before they went."

Thomas, " who had been a law-student in London for nine years," had been a zealous Catholic for some time before he made his retreat under Father Gerard, so that a priest on his landing in England would be sure of a welcome from him. James Young, a priest, whose aliases were George Dingley and Thomas Christopher, stated 16 when examined by Lord Keeper Puckering on the 27th of August, 1592, that "this examinate at his first coming to London after his landing came to Thomas Wiseman's lodging at Garnet's Rents in Lincoln's Inn Field, being not sent to him by any man, but hearing one Ireland an Englishman at Civyll [Seville] give the said Roberts a token to go to the said Wiseman by, viz., that when Ireland went last from him they brake a cake between them ; and by this token this examinate went to Wiseman, who received him and gave this examinate his diet and lodging for two or three nights in his lodgings at Garnet's Rents, during which time no persons repaired to him there, nor did he say any mass there then. But from thence this examinate departed to my Lady Throckmorton to her house (as he thinketh called Ripton) near Stebnethe [Stepney] within three or four days of his coming to London first as aforesaid, and there made her acquainted that he was a priest, as the said Wiseman had before let her understand, and then tarried with her about a month, being kept there very secret in a chamber, having his diet brought by one Jane her maid and by no other body; and this examinate, in a chamber in the house at the end of a gallery, did often say mass to my Lady Throckmorton and her maid, and my lady helped to say mass [that is, served mass], and the said lady at this examinate's departure gave him twenty marks, and sent him to Mr. Mompesson, a gentleman living at Clerkenwell, under pretence to be tabled [boarded] there, and to make way for marriage with a young gentlewoman there called Temperance Davys; and the examinate stayed there till Christmas after during which time he said mass to Mrs. Mompesson every Sunday, and one other named Patenson, 17 being a priest and since executed, said mass to the rest of the household, at whose masses Mr. Mompesson would stand behind the door to hear the masses and not to be seen of his servants, as though the master had not known Patenson to be a priest. And there repaired to this examinate while he was there one James Jackson of the Bishopric of Durham, and one Ffayrbek of Durham, and no more; and they well knew that this examinate was a priest, and persuaded this examinate to go down into the north and there to exercise his function, rather than here, being a dangerous place ; and being a search made at that house, this examinate escaped out [of] a back door, and went to Mr. Wiseman to Garnet's Rents and told him what had happened, and tarried with him that night; who sent him to Coles a schoolmaster at the upper end of Holborn, where he this examinate stayed till Easter week last was passed; to whom during that time repaired one Mr. Stampe (as he thinks of Derbyshire). And this examinate did often m that time say mass to the said Coles and his wife, and to the said Mr. Stampe, and one Mrs. Mary Felton, dwelling at Hyegate [Highgate]. And this examinate further saith that he said mass often to Mr. Wiseman in his chamber upon the Sundays, none being present but his servant called William Smythe, a little man ; and yet he remem-bereth that Mrs. Mary Best, dwelling in Fetter-lane, came twice to mass to Mr. Wiseman's house, and heard mass, the said Mr. Wiseman, whom she called cousin, being present. And he saith that Mr. Wiseman about Christmas last delivered to this examinate keys of his lodging to come, in at all times at his pleasure, and the same keys being found about this examinate when he was apprehended, he sent Mr. Wiseman word thereof, wishing him to alter the locks presently, that it might not be known to what locks those keys served. He saith that one Mush a priest met this examinate in Gray's Inn Fields and told this examinate that they should both dine at Mr. Wiseman's that day, but this examinate was apprehended before he could come to Mr. Wiseman's. And the said Mush and one Bell 18 also a priest (who goeth as Mush's man) are gone down into Yorkshire, and thinketh he will remain there about York, but at whose houses he never heard him tell; but Mush said to him that he had been much thereabouts, and that the gentlemen were much fallen off, but that the gentlewomen stood steadfastly to it.

"This examinate, being asked what Jesuit or priests he knoweth, saith he knoweth all that have come from Rome these seven years, as, namely, one Oldcorne, Cowper, Garret [Gerard], Southwell, Holtby, and divers others which this examinate knoweth if he see them and will endeavour himself to call their names to his remembrance. The said Cowper was with this examinate at Clerkenwell at Mr. Mompesson's, that he resorteth much about the Tower hill, but to what place he knoweth not.

" He saith that the Smythe, whom he named in his letter to Mary Best to help him to his apparel, and to let his friends know his want, was William Smythe, Mr. Wiseman's man, and the young gentleman that should see it conveyed without danger, so mentioned in his letter, he meant to be the same Mr. Wiseman. And for Jones, that should be his bail, with Sergeant Lloyd, whom Jones also procured, this examinate had no acquaintance with either of them, but that by means of another prisoner in the Counter, Jones was content for twenty marks to procure him bail."

In a letter 19 written on the day of this examination, Young says: "Remembering a token which I heard Father Persons speak of to one of them who came like galley slaves [this was the way in which some of the party of students to which Young belonged left Seville], I enquired for one Thomas Wiseman about the Inns of Court, with whom at last I met" And further on : « Cole being called into trouble a little before Easter last, I was again forced to repair to Wiseman, with whom yet I could not continue because he was to ride out of the city. Then I lay at an inn, at the White Swan at Holborn bridge, where I remained till my apprehension and bringing before Mr. Young at the beginning of Easter term last, and ever since have been prisoner in the Poultry."

It would seem from this that Thomas Wiseman did not go straight to Rome after seeing Father Walpole in Brussels in August, 1591, but returned to London perhaps to settle his money matters. In 1592 Easter day was March 26th, and by the 26th of May Thomas Wiseman and his brother John were at Rome safe in the Novitiate at St. Andrew's on the Quirinal. From a record 20 of them among the Stonyhurst manuscripts, we learn not only that Thomas took the surname of Starkey, and John that of Standish, out of affection to Father Gerard, but that they changed their Christian names also, Thomas calling himself William, after their elder brother, and John changing his name to that of their remaining brother Robert. They were respectively twenty-four and twenty-one years old when they thus entered the Society, and the record adds that Thomas died at St. Omers in 1596 and John in the Novitiate in 1592.

1 "The names of the six first assistants to the Archpriest were these: 1. Dr. John Baven, 2. Dr. Henry Henshaw, 3. Mr. Nicholas Tirwitt, 4. Mr. Henry Shaw, 5. Mr. George Birket, 6. Mr. James Standish." Dr. John bouthcote's MS. Note Book, in the possession of the Bishop of Southwark. Anthony Tyrrel, just three years before this, reported that the priest at Henry Drury's, was "Hance, alias Draiton, brother to Hance that suffered," that is in all probability, William the brother of Everard Hanse, who was martyred at Tyburn July 31, 1581. P.R.O., Domestic, Elizabeth, vol. cxciii. n. 13.

2 An English Carmelite: Life of Catharine Burton, by Father Thomas Hunter, S.J. London, 1876, p. 6. Troubles, First Series, p. 255.

Gee says thirty years  later ' that the Douay Old Testament "sold for 40s, which at an ordinary price might be afforded for 10;" the Rheims New Testament in 4to S0ld for ,16 or 20s - which might be afforded for a noble[6s. 8d] or less; " the same in 16mo "sold for 12s. which might well be afforded for 4;" St. Augustine's Confessions, translated by Toby Matthew, sold for 16s. being but a little book in 8vo and might be afforded for 2s. 6d." the Pseudo-Scripturist by Father Norris, S.J., " a book of some 12 sheets of Paper and sold for 5s." Foot out of the Snare, by John Gee, 1624.

Exercit. Spirit, Regulӕ pro distribuendis eleemosynis.

5 The documents relating to Father Thomas Everard will be found collected in Brother Foley's Records of the English Province, vol. ii. p. 399

6 Troubles, Second Series, p. 272, note.

Challoner's Missionary Priests, vol. ii. p. 29.

Records of the English Province, vol. ii. p. 483.

9 Troubles, Second Series, p. 365. The name appears in the following instructive list of " Sums paid by Recusants " from Michaelmas to March 10, 1594-5. P.R.O., Domestic, Elizabeth, vol. ccli. n. 53.
10 P.R.O., Domestic -, Elizabeth, vol. cxciii. n. 14.

11 Ibid. vol. cc. n. 59; vol. ccv. n. 13.

12 Christopher Walpole entered the English College at Rome, Feb. 22, 1592, and was admitted into the Society Sept. 27 in the same year. He died at Valladolid in 1606. One Generation of a Norfolk Bouse, p. 298.

13 Stonyhurst MSS., Anglia A. vol. i. n. 38, edited by Dr. Jessopp in the Letters of Henry Walpole.

14 In Father Baldwin's cypher "229" was "Jesuit." The letter will be found later.

15 P.R.O., Domestic, Elizabeth, vol. ccxix. n. 77 i incorrectly dated 1588 in the Calendar.

16 P.R.O., Domestic, Elizabeth, vol. ccxlii. n. 122.

17 William Patenson was martyred at Tyburn, Jan. 22, 1591/2.

18 John Mush was the author of Mrs. Clitherow's life, and probably also of the "Yorkshire Recusant's Relation," Troubles, Third Series, pp. 85, 360. Thomas Bell became a spy. Ibid, p. 300. See the Queen's letter from Hampton Court to the Earl of Derby, Oct. 30, 1592. Lord Derby's report says : "Bell's repair to his lordship and conversation being generally known, bred suspicion." P.R.O., Domestic, Elizabeth, vol. ccxliii. nn. 51, 71.

19 P.R.O., Domestic, Elizabeth, vol. ccxlii. n. 121.

20 " Admissi Romӕ in domo probationis S. Andreӕ.
" 1592, Gulielmus Starcheius alias Wiseman, 26 Maii, set. 24, ex Anglia. Obiit Audomari 1596.
Robertas Standish alias Wiseman, 26 Man, set. 21, ex Anglia.
Obiit in Novitiatu 1592."