Sunday, 11 January 2015

St. Bernard of Clairvaux's Life of St. Malachy of Armagh, by H. J. Lawlor. Part 15.


Sermon I

(November 2, 1148.) 1005

1. A certain abundant blessing, dearly beloved, has been sent by the counsel of heaven to you this day; and if it were not faithfully divided, you would suffer loss, and I, to whom of a surety this office seems to have been committed, would incur danger. I fear therefore your loss, I fear my own damnation,1006 if perchance it be said, The young children ask bread, and no man offereth it unto them.1007 For I know how necessary for you is the consolation which comes from heaven, since it is certain that you have manfully renounced carnal delights and worldly pleasures. None can reasonably doubt that it was by the good gift of heaven, and determined by divine purpose,1008 that Bishop Malachy should fall asleep among you to-day, and among you have his place of burial, as he desired. For if not even a leaf of a tree falls to the ground without the will of God,1009 who is so dull as not to see plainly in the coming of this blessed man, and his passing, a truly great purpose of the divine compassion?1010 From the uttermost parts of the earth he came1011 to leave his earth here. He was hastening, it is true, on another errand; but we know that by reason of his special love for us he desired that most of all.1012 He suffered many hindrances in the journey itself, and he was refused permission to cross the sea till the time of his consummation was drawing near,1013 and the goal which could not be passed. And when, with many labours, he came to us we received him as an angel of God1014 out of reverence for his holiness; but he, out of his very deeply rooted meekness and lowliness,1015 far beyond our merits, received us with devoted love. Then he spent a few days with us in his usual health: for he was waiting for his companions, who had been scattered in England, when the baseless distrust of the king was hindering the man of God. And when they had all assembled to him, he was preparing to set out to the Roman Court, on his way to which he had come hither;1016 when suddenly he was overtaken by sickness, and he immediately perceived that he was being summoned rather to the heavenly palace, God having provided some better thing for us, lest going out from us he should be made perfect elsewhere.1017

2. There appeared to the physicians no sign in him, I say not of death, but even of serious illness; but he, gladdened in spirit, said that in every way it was befitting that this year Malachy should depart from this life.1018 We laboured to prevent it, both by earnest prayers to God, and by whatever other means we could; but his merits prevailed, that his heart's desire should be given him and that the request of his lips should not be withholden.1019 For so all things happened to him in accordance with his wishes; that by the inspiration of the divine goodness he had chosen this place above all others, and that he had long desired that he should have as the day of his burial this day on which the general memory of all the faithful is celebrated.1020 Moreover, these joys of ours were worthily increased by the circumstance that we had selected that same day, by God's will, for bringing hither from the former cemetery for their second burial the bones of our brothers.1021 And when we were bringing them, and singing psalms in the accustomed manner, the same holy man said that he was very greatly delighted with that chanting. And not long after, he himself also followed, having sunk into a most sweet and blessed sleep. Therefore we render thanks to God for all the things that He has disposed, because He willed to honour us, unworthy as we are, by his blessed death among us, to enrich His poor with the most costly treasure of his body, and to strengthen us, who are weak, by so great a pillar1022 of His church. For one or other of two signs proves that it was wrought for us for good,1023 either that this place is pleasing to God, or that it is His will to make it pleasing to Him, since He led to it from the uttermost parts of the earth1024 so holy a man to die and to be buried there.

3. But our very love for this blessed father compels us to sorrow with that people from our heart, and to shudder exceedingly at the cruelty of him, even Death, who has not spared to inflict this terrible wound on the Church, now so much to be pitied. Terrible and unpitying surely is death, which has punished so great a multitude of men by smiting one; blind and without foresight, which has tied the tongue of Malachy, arrested his steps, relaxed his hands, closed his eyes. Those devout eyes, I say, which were wont to restore divine grace to sinners, by most tender tears; those most holy hands, which had always loved to be occupied in laborious and humble deeds, which so often offered for sinners the saving sacrifice1025 of the Lord's body, and were lifted up to heaven in prayer without wrath and doubting,1026 which are known to have bestowed many benefits on the sick and to have been resplendent with manifold signs; those beautiful steps also of him that preached the Gospel of peace and brought glad tidings of good things; those feet,1027 which were so often wearied with eagerness to show pity; those footprints which were always worthy to merit devout kisses;1028 finally, those holy lips of the priest, which kept knowledge,1029 the mouth of the righteous, which spoke wisdom, and his tongue which, talking of judgement,1030 yea and of mercy,1031 was wont to heal so great wounds of souls. And it is no wonder, brothers, that death is iniquitous, since iniquity brought it forth,1032 that it is heedless, since it is known to have been born of seduction.1033 It is nothing wonderful, I say, if it strikes without distinction, since it came from the transgression;1034 if it is cruel and mad, since it was produced by the subtlety of the old serpent1035 and the folly of the woman. But why do we charge against it that it dared to assail Malachy, a faithful member, it is true, of Christ,1036 when it also rushed madly upon the very head of1037 Malachy and of all the elect as well? It rushed, assuredly, upon One whom it could not hurt; but it did not rush away unhurt. Death hurled itself against life, and life shut up death within itself, and death was swallowed up of life.1038 Gulping down the hook to its hurt, it began to be held by Him whom it seemed to have held.1039

4. But perhaps some one may say, How does it appear that death has been overcome by the Head, if it still rages with so great liberty against the members? If death is dead, how did it kill Malachy? If it is conquered how has it still power over all, and there is no man that liveth and shall not see death?1040 Death is clearly conquered—the work of the devil1041 and the penalty of sin: sin is conquered, the cause of death; and the wicked one himself is conquered,1042 the author both of sin and death. And not only are these things conquered, they are, moreover, already judged and condemned. The sentence is determined, but not yet published. In fact, the fire is prepared for the devil,1043 though he is not yet cast into the fire, though still for a short time1044 he is allowed to work wickedness. He is become, as it were, the hammer of the Heavenly Workman, the hammer of the whole earth.1045 He crushes the elect for their profit,1046 he crushes to powder the reprobate for their damnation. As is the master of the house, so are they of his household,1047 that is, sin and death. For sin, though it is not to be doubted that it was nailed with Christ to His cross,1048 was yet allowed still for a time, not indeed to reign,1049 but to dwell even in the Apostle himself while he lived. I lie if he does not himself say, It is no more I that do it, but sin dwelleth in me.1050 So also death itself is by no means, indeed, yet compelled not to be present, but it is compelled not to be present to men's hurt. But there will come a time when it is said, O death, where is thy victory?1051 For death also is the last enemy that shall be destroyed.1052 But now, since He rules who has the power of life and death1053 and confines the very sea within the fixed limits of its shores, death itself to the beloved of the Lord is a sleep of refreshment. The prophet bears witness who says, When he giveth his beloved sleep, behold the heritage of the Lord.1054 The death of the wicked is indeed most evil,1055 since their birth is evil and their life more evil; but precious is the death of the saints.1056 Precious clearly, for it is the end of labours, the consummation of victory, the gate of life, and the entrance to perfect safety.

5. Let us rejoice therefore, brothers, let us rejoice as is meet, with our father, for if it is an act of filial piety to mourn for Malachy who is dead, yet more is it an act of piety to rejoice with Malachy who is alive. Is he not alive? He is, and in bliss. Certainly, in the eyes of the foolish he seemed to have died; but he is in peace.1057 In fine, now a fellow-citizen with the saints, and of the household of God,1058 he at once sings and gives thanks, saying, We went through fire and water; but thou broughtest us out into a wealthy place.1059 He went, clearly, in manly fashion, and he went through1060 happily. The true Hebrew celebrated the Passover in spirit, and as he went, he said to us, "With desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you."1061 He went through fire and water,1062 whom neither experiences of sadness could crush, nor pleasures hold back. For there is below us a place which fire wholly claims as its own, so that the wretched Dives could not have there even the least drop of water from the finger of Lazarus.1063 There is also above the city of God which the streams of the river make glad,1064 a torrent of pleasure,1065 a cup which inebriates, how goodly!1066 Here, in the midst, truly is found the knowledge of good and evil,1067 and in this place we may receive the trial of pleasure and of affliction.1068 Unhappy Eve brought us into these alternations. Here clearly is day and night; for in the lower world there is only night, and in heaven only day.1069 Blessed is the soul which passes through both, neither ensnared by pleasure nor fainting at tribulation.1070

6. I think it right to relate to you, briefly, a specimen of the many splendid deeds of this man, in which he is known to have gone, with no little vigour, through fire and water.1071 A tyrannous race laid claim to the metropolitan see of Patrick, the great apostle of the Irish, creating archbishops in regular succession, and possessing the sanctuary of God by hereditary right.1072 Our Malachy was therefore asked by the faithful to combat such great evils; and putting his life in his hand1073 he advanced to the attack with vigour, he undertook the archbishopric, exposing himself to evident danger, that he might put an end to so great a crime. Surrounded by perils he ruled the church; when the perils were passed, immediately he canonically ordained another as his successor. For he had undertaken the office on this condition, that when the fury of persecution had ceased and it thus became possible that another should safely be appointed, he should be allowed to return to his own see.1074 And there, without ecclesiastical or secular revenues he lived in the religious communities which he himself had formed, dwelling among them up to this time as one of themselves, and abjuring all personal property.1075 So the fire of affliction tried1076 the man of God, but did not consume1077 him; for he was gold. So neither did pleasure hold him captive or destroy him, nor did he stand a curious spectator on the way, forgetful of his own pilgrimage.

7. Which of you, brothers, would not earnestly desire to imitate his holiness, if he dared even to hope for such an attainment? I believe, therefore, you will gladly hear, if I perchance can tell it, what made Malachy holy. But lest our testimony should seem not easy to be received, hear what the Scripture says: He made him holy in his faith and meekness.1078 By faith he trampled on the world, as John bears witness when he says, This is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith.1079 For in the spirit of meekness1080 he endured all things whatsoever that were hard and contrary with good cheer.1081 On the one hand, indeed, after the example of Christ, by faith he trampled on the seas,1082 lest he should be entangled in pleasures; on the other, in his patience he possessed his soul,1083 lest he should be crushed by troubles. For concerning these two things you have the saying in the Psalm, A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand;1084 for many more are cast down by the deceitfulness of prosperity than by the lashes of adversity. Therefore, dearly beloved, let none of us, allured by the level surface of the easier way, suppose that road of the sea to be more convenient for himself. This plain1085 has great mountains, invisible indeed, but for that very reason more dangerous. That way perhaps seems more laborious which passes through the steeps of the hills and the ruggedness of rocks; but to them that have tried it, it is found far safer and more to be desired. But on both sides there is labour, on both sides danger, as he knew who said, By the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left;1086 so that we may rightly rejoice with those that went through fire and water and have been brought into a wealthy place.1087 Do you wish to hear something about the wealthy place? Would that another might speak to you of it. For as for me, that which I have not tasted I cannot indite.

8. But I seem to hear Malachy saying to me to-day about this wealthy place, Return unto thy rest, O my soul; for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee: for he hath delivered my soul from death, [mine eyes from tears, and my feet from falling].1088 And what I understand to be expressed in those words hear in a few sentences; for the day is far spent,1089 and I have spoken at greater length than I intended, because I am unwilling to tear myself away from the sweetness of the father's name, and my tongue, dreading to be silent about Malachy, fears to cease. The death of the soul,1090 my brothers, is sin; unless you have overlooked that which you have read in the prophet: The soul that sinneth, it shall die.1091 Threefold, then, is the rejoicing of the man, since he is delivered from all sin, and from labour, and from danger. For from this time neither is sin said to dwell in him,1092 nor is the sorrow of penitence enjoined, nor from henceforth is he warned to guard himself from any falling.1093 Elijah1094 has laid aside his mantle;1095 it was not that he feared, it was not that he was afraid that it should be touched, still less retained, by an adulteress.1096 He went up into the chariot;1097 he is not now in terror of falling; he mounts delightfully; he labours not to fly by his own power, but sits in a swift vehicle. To this wealthy place, dearly beloved, let us run with all eagerness of spirit, in the fragrance of the ointments of this our blessed father, who this day has been seen to have stirred up our torpor to most fervent desire. Let us run after him, I say, crying to him again and again, "Draw us after thee";1098 and, with earnest heart and advancing holiness of life, returning devout thanks to the Almighty Pity, that He has willed that His unworthy servants, who are without merits of their own, should at least not be without the prayers of another.

Sermon II

(November 2, 1149) 1099

1. It is clear, dearly beloved, that whilst we are detained in the body we are absent from the Lord.1100 And throughout this wretched time of detention banishment and conscience of faults enjoins upon us sorrow rather than joy. But because by the mouth of the apostle we are exhorted to rejoice with them that do rejoice,1101 the time and the occasion require that we should be stirred up to all gladness. For if it is true, as the prophet perceived, that the righteous rejoice before God,1102 without doubt Malachy rejoices, who in his days1103 pleased God1104 and was found righteous.1105 Malachy ministered in holiness and righteousness before Him:1106the ministry pleased Him; the minister also pleased Him. Why should he not please Him? He made the Gospel without charge,1107 he filled the country with the Gospel, he tamed the deathly barbarism of his Irishmen, with the sword of the spirit1108 he subdued foreign nations to the light yoke of Christ,1109 restoring His inheritance to Him1110 even unto the ends of the earth.1111 O, fruitful ministry! O, faithful minister! Is not the promise of the Father to the Son fulfilled through him? Did not the Father behold him long ago when He said to the Son, I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.1112 How willingly the Saviour received what He had bought,1113 and had bought with the price1114 of His own blood,1115 with the shame of the Cross, with the horror of the Passion. How willingly from the hands of Malachy, because he ministered freely.1116 So in the minister the freely executed office was acceptable,1117 and in the ministry the conversion of sinners was pleasing. Acceptable and pleasing, I say, in the minister was the singleness of eye,1118 but in the ministry the salvation of the people.1119

2. However, even though a less effective result of the ministry followed, He would nevertheless justly have had regard to Malachy and his works, He to whom purity is a friend and single-mindedness one of his household, to whose righteousness it belongs to weigh the work in accordance with its purpose, from the character of the eye to measure the state of the whole body.1120 But now the works of the Lord are great, sought out according to all the desires1121 and efforts of Malachy; they are great and many and very good,1122 though better in proportion to the good origin of the pure purpose. What work of piety escaped the attention of Malachy? He was poor as regards himself, but rich to the poor. He was a father of the fatherless, a husband of the widows,1123 a protector of the oppressed. A cheerful giver,1124 seldom making petitions, modest in receiving gifts. He was specially solicitous, and had much success, in restoring peace between those who were at variance. Who was as tender as he in sharing the sufferings of others? who as ready to help? who as free in rebuke? For he was zealous, and yet not wanting in knowledge, the restrainer of zeal. And, indeed, to the weak he was weak,1125 but none the less strong to the strong: he resisted the proud,1126 he lashed the tyrants, a teacher of kings and princes. It was he who by prayer deprived a king of sight when he worked wickedness, and restored it when he was humbled.1127 It was he, when certain men broke a peace which he had made, who gave them up to the spirit of error,1128 and foiled them in the evil which they devised to do; and who compelled them to accept peace a second time, confounded and stunned by that which had happened to them. It was he1129 to whom a river most opportunely lent its aid against the others, who were equally transgressors of a covenant.1130 In wonderful fashion, by throwing itself before them, it made void the efforts of the ungodly. There had been no rains, no floods of waters, no gathering of clouds, no melting of snows, when suddenly the mere rivulet was converted into a great river; and it rushed along1131 and swelling up overflowed the banks, and utterly denied passage to those who wished to do wickedly.1132

3. What things we have heard and known of the wrath of the man and his vengeance on his enemies, while yet he was sweet and gentle and plenteous in mercy unto all1133 that suffered need! For he lived for all as though he were the one parent of all.1134 As a hen her chickens,1135 so he cherished all and protected them under the covert of his wings.1136 He made no distinction of sex or age, of condition or person;1137 he failed none, his loving heart embraced all. In whatsoever affliction men cried to him he counted it his own: even more than that, for in regard to his own afflictions he was patient, in regard to those of others he was compassionate, very often even passionate. For indeed sometimes, filled with wrath, he was stirred to take the part of one against another, that by delivering the poor and restraining the strong1138 he might take thought in equal measure for the salvation of all. Therefore he was angry; but it was in order that he might not sin by not being angry, according to the words of the Psalm, Be ye angry and sin not.1139 Anger did not rule him, but he himself ruled his spirit.1140 He had power over himself. Assuredly he who had the victory over himself could not be mastered by anger.1141 His anger was kept in hand. When it was summoned it came, going forth, not bursting forth; it was brought into action by his will, not by impulse. He was not set on fire by it, but used it.1142 As well in this as in ruling and restraining all the motions both of his inner and his outer man1143 his judgement was careful, his caution great. For he did not give so much attention to all, as to leave himself alone out of account, as, in his universal solicitude, to disregard only himself. He was careful of himself also. He guarded himself.1144 In fact, he was so wholly his own, so wholly also belonged to all, that his love seemed in no degree to hinder or delay him from his guardianship of himself, nor his concern for his own person from the common good.1145 If you saw the man busied in the midst of crowds, involved in cares, you would say he was born for his country, not for himself.1146 If you saw the man alone and dwelling by himself, you would suppose that he lived for God alone and for himself.

4. Without tumult he went about among tumults; without ease he spent the time which he gave to ease. How could he be taking his ease1147 when he was occupied in the statutes of the Lord?1148 For though he had time free from the necessities of the peoples, yet had he none unoccupied by holy meditations, by the work of prayer, by the ease itself of contemplation. In the time of ease he spoke gravely or not at all. His mien was either courteous, or humble and self-restrained. Assuredly—a trait which is counted worthy of much praise among the wise—his eye was in his head,1149 never flying forth except when it was obedient to power. His laughter displayed love, or provoked it: but even so it was rare. Sometimes indeed, it came forth, but it was never forced, intimating the gladness of his heart in such a way that his mouth did not lose but gained in grace.1150 So modest was it that it could not be suspected of levity; so gentle,1151 however, that it sufficed to free his joyous countenance from every trace and shadow of sadness.1152 O perfect gift! O rich burnt sacrifice!1153 O pleasing service in mind and hand! How sweet unto God is the savour1154 of him who employs his leisure in prayers, how sweet unto men of him who is occupied in fatiguing labours.

5. Because he was such an one, then, beloved of God1155 and men, not undeservedly was Malachy received this day into the company of angels, having attained in fact what his name denoted.1156 And indeed, already he was an angel not less in purity than in name. But now more happily is the significance of his glorious name fulfilled in him, since he is glad with a glory and happiness equal to that of the angels.1157 Let us also, dearly beloved, be glad because our angel ascended1158 to his fellow-citizens, acting as an ambassador for the children of the captivity,1159 winning for us the favour of the blessed ones, declaring to them the desires of the wretched. Let us be glad, I say, and rejoice,1160 because in that heavenly court1161 there is one who went forth from us to take care of us,1162 to protect us by his merits,1163 whom he instructed1164 by his example and strengthened1165 by his miracles.

6. The holy pontiff, who in a humble spirit1166 often brought peace-offerings to the heavens, to-day in his own person has gone unto the altar of God,1167 himself the victim and the priest. With the departure of the priest the rite of sacrifice is changed into a better thing. The fountain of tears1168 is dried up, every burnt sacrifice is made with gladness and rejoicing.1169 Blessed be the Lord God of Malachy, who by the ministry of so great a pontiff hath visited his people,1170 and now, taking him up into the holy city,1171 ceaseth not, by the remembrance of so great sweetness to comfort our captivity.1172 Let the spirit of Malachy rejoice in the Lord,1173 because he is freed from the heavy load of the body, and is no longer hindered, by the weight of impure and earthly matter, from passing with all eagerness and fullness of life, through the whole creation, corporeal and incorporeal, that he may enter entirely into God, and joined to Him may with Him be one spirit1174 for ever.1175

7. Holiness becometh that house1176 in which the remembrance of so great holiness1177 is celebrated. Holy Malachy, preserve it in holiness and righteousness1178 pitying us who in the midst of so many and great miseries utter the memory of thine abundant goodness.1179 Great is the dispensation of the mercy of God upon thee, who made thee little in thine own sight,1180 great in His; who did great things by thee, in saving thy country, great things to thee,1181 in bringing thee into His glory. May thy festival, which is deservedly devoted to thy virtues, have a saving efficacy for us by thy merits and prayers. May the glory of thy holiness,1182 which is celebrated by us, be continued by angels: so shall it meetly be pleasant for us, if it be also fruitful. While thou departest be it allowed to us, who are met together to-day in thy so delicious feast, to preserve some remnants of the fruits of the Spirit, loaded with which thou ascendest.

8. Be to us, we beseech thee, holy Malachy, another Moses, or another Elijah, like them imparting of thy spirit1183 to us, for thou hast come in their spirit and power.1184 Thy life was a law of life and knowledge,1185 thy death the port of death and the portal of life,1186 thy memory the delight of sweetness and grace, thy presence a crown of glory in the hand of the Lord1187 thy God. O fruitful olive tree in the house of God!1188 O oil of gladness,1189 giving both anointing and light, cherishing with favours, resplendent with miracles,1190 make us partakers of that light and graciousness which thou enjoyest.1191 O sweet-smelling lily, blossoming and budding evermore before the Lord, and spreading everywhere a sweet and life-giving savour,1192 whose memorial is blessed1193 with us, whose presence is in honour with those who are above, grant to those who sing of thee that they may not be deprived of their share in so great an assembly.1194 O great luminary1195 and light that shinest in darkness,1196 illuminating the prison, making glad the city1197 by the rays of thy signs and merits, by the lustre of virtues put to flight from our hearts the darkness of vices. O morning star,1198 more brilliant than the rest because thou art nearer the day, more like to the sun, deign to go before us, that we also may walk in the light as children of light, and not children of darkness.1199 O thou who art the dawn breaking into day upon the earth, but the noon light1200 illumining the higher regions of heaven, receive us in the fellowship of light, by which illuminated thou sheddest light far without, and sweetly burnest within, by the gift of our Lord Jesus Christ, who with the Father and the Holy Spirit reigneth One God, world without end.—Amen.

[1005] The evidence that this discourse was delivered on the day of Malachy's death is cumulative. (1) The opening words of § 1, and the closing sentences of § 8 (note "this day"). (2) The statement in § 5, "He said to us, 'With desire I have desired,'" etc., implies that those who tended Malachy in his sickness were present (see Life, § 73). The first person plural in § 2 suggests the same conclusion. (3) In § 6, "dwelling among them up to this time" implies that his death was not long past. (4) The striking parallels with Letter iv.; for which see the notes on it. (5) The tone of the sermon—in marked contrast to that of Sermon ii.—indicates that the community was crushed with sorrow for a recent bereavement. See R.I.A. xxxv. 255 ff.

[1006] damnum uestrum ... damnationem meam.

[1007] Lam. iv. 4 (inexact quotation).

[1008] Acts ii. 23.

[1009] Cp. Matt. x. 29.

[1010] Cp. St. Bernard, De Laud. Virg. i. 1 (P.L. clxxxiii. 56): "For if neither a leaf from a tree falls on the earth without cause, nor one of the sparrows without the heavenly Father, am I to suppose that a superfluous word flows from the mouth of the holy evangelist?"

[1011] Matt. xii. 42.

[1012] See Life, § 67.

[1013] See Life, § 69.

[1014] Gal. iv. 14 (inexact quotation).

[1015] Cp. Eph. iv. 2.

[1016] He was evidently in haste to resume his journey. And no wonder, for the winter was drawing near, and the sooner the passage of the Alps was made the better for his comfort and safety. Cp. R.I.A. xxxv. 248. "Alpine passes ... become impassable usually about the commencement or middle of October, and remain closed until May" (Sennett, Great St. Bernard, p. 369).

[1017] Heb. xi. 40.

[1018] See Life, § 71.

[1019] Ps. xxi. 2.

[1020] See Life, §§ 67, 71.

[1021] The translation is supposed by Henriquez, Fasciculus Sanctorum Ordinis Cisterciensis, ii. 41. 6 (P.L. lxxxv. 1559) to have been made on All Saints' Day, the bones being reburied on All Souls' Day. But Vacandard (R.Q.H. lii. 41 f.) thinks that the date of the translation was Saturday, October 30. This event probably marked the end of the construction of the new monastery of Clairvaux, which began before Malachy's first visit. See p. 71, n. 4.

[1022] Gal. ii. 9.

[1023] Ps. lxxxvi. 17 (vg.).

[1024] Matt. xii. 42.

[1025] 2 Macc. iii. 32 (vg.).

[1026] 1 Tim. ii. 8.

[1027] Rom. x. 15.

[1028] Cp. Luke vii. 38.—Perhaps a reference to St. Bernard's own action just before this sermon was preached. See p. 129, n. 6.

[1029] Mal. ii. 7.

[1030] Ps. xxxvii. 30.

[1031] Ps. ci. 1.

[1032] Jas. i. 15.

[1033] Cp. 2 Cor. xi. 3; 1 Tim. ii. 14.—See J. H. Bernard on 2 Cor. xi. 3 (Expositor's Greek Testament).

[1034] 1 Tim. ii. 14.

[1035] Rev. xii. 9; xx. 2.

[1036] 1 Cor. vi. 15, etc.

[1037] Eph. iv. 15, etc.

[1038] 1 Cor. xv. 54, combined with 2 Cor. v. 4.

[1039] Cp. Cant. xxvi. 11: "Thou art dead, O death, and pierced by the hook thou hast imprudently swallowed, which saith in the words of the prophet, 'O death, I will be thy death! O hell, I will be thy bite.' Pierced, I say, by that hook, to the faithful who go through the midst of thee thou offerest a broad and pleasant path-way into life" (Morison's translation). A very old metaphor. It is thus explained by Rufinus (a.d. 400) in his Commentary on the Apostles' Creed (§ 16, Heurtley's translation): "The object of that mystery of the Incarnation ... was that the divine virtue of the Son of God, as though it were a hook concealed beneath the form and fashion of human flesh, ... might lure on the prince of this world to a conflict, to whom offering His flesh as a bait, His divinity underneath might secure him, caught with a hook by the shedding of His immaculate blood.... As, if a fish seizes a baited hook, it not only does not take the bait off the hook, but is drawn out of the water to be itself food for others, so he who had the power of death seized the body of Jesus in death, not being aware of the hook of divinity enclosed within it, but, having swallowed it, he was caught forthwith, and the bars of hell being burst asunder, he was drawn forth as it were from the abyss to become food for others."

[1040] Ps. lxxxix. 48 (vg.).

[1041] 1 John iii. 8.

[1042] 1 John ii. 13, 14.

[1043] Matt. xxv. 41.

[1044] Rev. xii. 12.

[1045] Jer. l. 23.

[1046] 1 Cor. xii. 7 (vg.).

[1047] Matt. x. 25.

[1048] Col. ii. 14.

[1049] Rom. vi. 12.

[1050] Rom. vii. 17.

[1051] 1 Cor. xv. 55 (vg.).

[1052] 1 Cor. xv. 26.

[1053] Heb. ii. 14; Tobit ii. 8.

[1054] Ps. cxxvii. 2, 3 (vg.).

[1055] Ps. xxxiv. 21 (vg.).

[1056] Ps. cxvi. 15.

[1057] Communio for All Saints (Wisd. iii. 2, 3).

[1058] Eph. ii. 19 (with variant).

[1059] Ps. lxvi. 12.

[1060] Hos. x. 15 (vg.: xi. 1).

[1061] Luke xxii. 15.—See Life, § 73, where for "he said to us" we have "lifting up his eyes on those who stood round him, he said."

[1062] Ps. lxvi. 12.

[1063] Luke xvi. 24, 25.

[1064] Ps. xlvi. 4.

[1065] Ps. xxxvi. 8 (vg.).

[1066] Ps. xxiii. 5 (vg.).

[1067] Gen. ii. 9.

[1068] 2 Cor. viii. 2.

[1069] Rev. xxi. 25; xxii. 5.

[1070] Eph. iii. 13.

[1071] Ps. lxvi. 12.

[1072] Ps. lxxxiii 12 (vg.).

[1073] 1 Sam. xix. 5.

[1074] See Life, §§ 19-31.

[1075] See p. 82, n. 5.

[1076] Ps. lxvi. 10, 11.

[1077] Examinauit, non exinaniuit.

[1078] Ecclus. xlv. 4 (vg.).

[1079] 1 John v. 4.

[1080] Gal. vi. 1.

[1081] 1 Kings xxi. 7 (vg.).

[1082] Cp. Matt. xiv. 25; John vi. 19.

[1083] Luke xxi. 19.

[1084] Ps. xci. 7.

[1085] That is, the sea. The details of the imagery are not clear. But evidently the sea represents the pleasures, and the hills and rocks the adversities, of life.

[1086] 2 Cor. vi. 7.

[1087] Ps. lxvi. 12.

[1088] Ps. cxvi. 7, 8 (vg.).—The printed text has, in place of the bracketed words, "and so forth." The threefold deliverance obviously corresponds to the threefold rejoicing mentioned below, sin being substituted for death in the description of it, because "the death of the soul is sin."

[1089] Luke xxiv. 29.

[1090] Cp. Ps. cxvi. 8.

[1091] Ezek. xviii. 4.

[1092] Rom. vii. 17, 20.

[1093] Ps. cxvi. 8.

[1094] For other comparisons of Malachy with Elijah, see Life, § 23; Serm. ii. § 8.

[1095] 2 Kings ii. 13.

[1096] Gen. xxxix. 12, 15 (vg.).

[1097] 2 Kings ii. 11.

[1098] Cant. i. 3, 4.

[1099] It is plain from § 7 that this sermon was preached on an anniversary of Malachy's death, i.e. on November 2, in a year later than 1148. I put it in 1149 because of its striking coincidences with the Life, which was written early in that year (see p. lxv). There is also a possible echo (§ 3) of De Cons. i. which belongs to the same year (P.L. clxxxii. 723). These, together with two coincidences of phrase with other writings of St. Bernard, are pointed out in the notes. See R.I.A. xxxv. 260 ff.

[1100] 2 Cor. v. 6.

[1101] Rom. xii. 15.

[1102] Ps. lxviii. 3.

[1103] Ecclus. xliv. 7.

[1104] Ecclus. xliv. 16 (vg.).

[1105] Ecclus. xliv. 17.

[1106] Luke i. 75.

[1107] 1 Cor. ix. 18.—Cp. Life, § 43 (p. 84).

[1108] Eph. vi. 17.

[1109] Matt. xi. 30.

[1110] Ps. xvi. 5 (vg.).

[1111] Isa. xlviii. 20; Jer. xxv. 31.

[1112] Ps. ii. 8.

[1113] 2 Pet. ii. 1.

[1114] 1 Cor. vi. 20.

[1115] Acts xx. 28.

[1116] 2 Cor. xi. 7.

[1117] Gratum erat munus gratuitum.

[1118] Matt. vi. 22; Luke xi. 34.

[1119] Hab. iii. 13.

[1120] Matt. vi. 22, 23; Luke xi. 34, 35.

[1121] Ps. cxi. 2 (vg.).

[1122] Gen. i. 31.

[1123] Ps. lxviii. 5.

[1124] 2 Cor. ix. 7.

[1125] 1 Cor. ix. 22.

[1126] Jas. iv. 6; 1 Pet. v. 5.

[1127] See Life, § 60.

[1128] 1 John iv. 6.

[1129] Printed text, Ipse enim est. With A I omit enim.

[1130] Josh. vii. 15, etc.

[1131] So A: cicius (= citius) ibat for riuus ibat of the printed text.

[1132] The story is told much more fully in Life, §§ 58, 59; where there are many similarities in phraseology to the present passage. In both places it is connected with the miraculous blinding of the king, immediately preceding it here, immediately following it there.

[1133] Ps. lxxxvi. 5 (vg.).

[1134] Cp. the description of Malchus, Life, § 8: "He was reverenced by all, as the one father of all"; and of Malachy, § 33: "the loving father of all."

[1135] Matt. xxiii. 37.

[1136] Ps. lxi. 4 (vg.).

[1137] Cp. Life, § 42: "Neither sex nor age, nor condition nor profession, is held in account."

[1138] Ps. xxxv. 10

[1139] Ps. iv. 4 (vg.).

[1140] Prov. xvi. 32.

[1141] Job xxxvi. 18 (vg.).

[1142] Non urebatur illa, sed utebatur.

[1143] Utriusque hominis sui.

[1144] 1 Tim. v. 22.

[1145] Cp. De Cons. i. 6: "If you desire wholly to belong to all ... I praise your humility, but only if it is complete. But how can it be complete if you exclude yourself? And you are a man. Then, that your humanity also may be complete, let the bosom which receives all gather you also within itself ... wherefore, where all possess you let you yourself also be one of those who possess."

[1146] Lucan, Phars. ii. 383.

[1147] Cp. De Cons. iv. 12, "In ease not taking ease;" Life, § 43, "Quiet often, but by no means at any time taking ease."

[1148] Ps. cxix. 23.

[1149] Eccles. ii. 14 (inexact quotation).

[1150] Cp. Luke iv. 22.

[1151] Tantillus. The text seems to be corrupt. Read tam laetus?

[1152] Cp. Life, § 43: "Yea, what was there that was not edifying," etc.

[1153] Ps. xx. 3 (vg.).

[1154] 2 Cor. ii. 15.

[1155] 1 Thess. i. 4 (vg.); 2 Thess. ii. 13.

[1156] That is, Malachias, the Hebrew for my angel, with a Latin termination. For its origin see Life, § 12.

[1157] At this point, with A, I omit a passage which is identical with the first half of Serm. i. § 5, and interrupts the argument. With A, also, in the following sentence I read Laetemur et nos dilectissimi quod for Laetemur quod of the printed text. See R.I.A. xxxv. 260-262.

[1158] Judg. xiii. 20.

[1159] Dan. vi. 13; Ezra iv. 1.

[1160] Ps. ix. 2.

[1161] Curia.

[1162] Cui sit cura nostri.

[1163] Cp. Lett. iv. § 2.

[1164] Informauit.

[1165] Confirmauit.

[1166] Song of Three Children, 16.

[1167] Ps. xliii. 4.

[1168] Jer. ix. 1.

[1169] Ps. xlv. 15.

[1170] Luke i. 68.

[1171] Matt. iv. 5.

[1172] Ps. cxxvi. 1, 4 (vg.).

[1173] Luke i. 47.

[1174] 1 Cor. vi. 17.

[1175] See De Cons. v. 2, quoted p. 127, n. 13, and the sermon on the Marriage of the Soul with the Word (Cant. lxxxiii. 6), in which St. Bernard, quoting 1 Cor. vi. 17, says, "Love ... joins the two in one spirit, makes them no longer two but one." Cp. also Cant. xxvi. 5: "He that is joined to God is one spirit, and is wholly changed into a certain divine feeling, and cannot think of or mind anything but God, and that which God thinks and minds, being full of God." For the last phrase see Ignatius, Magn. 14.

[1176] Ps. xciii. 5.

[1177] Ps. xxx. 4.

[1178] Luke i. 75.

[1179] Ps. cxlv. 7 (vg.).

[1180] 1 Sam. xv. 17 (inexact quotation).

[1181] Luke i. 49.

[1182] Ps. cxlv. 5 (vg.).

[1183] Num. xi. 25; 2 Kings ii. 9, 15.

[1184] Luke i. 17.—See p. 151, n. 3.

[1185] Ecclus. xlv. 5.

[1186] The same phrase occurs in Life, § 75, similarly applied.

[1187] Isa. lxii. 3.

[1188] Ps. lii. 8 (vg.).

[1189] Ps. xlv. 7 (vg.).

[1190] Epiphany Collect.

[1191] Cp. Life, § 47 (p. 88).

[1192] Isa. xxvii. 6, combined with Hos. xiv. 5, and Ecclus. xxxix. 14.

[1193] Ecclus. xlv. 1.

[1194] Ecclus. xxiv. 2, 12 (vg.). The clauses containing the word assembly (plenitudo) are omitted in R.V.

[1195] Ps. cxxxvi. 7.

[1196] John i. 4.

[1197] Ps. xlvi. 4.

[1198] Ecclus. l. 6.

[1199] 1 John i. 7, combined with 1 Thess. v. 5.

[1200] Isa. xviii. 4 (vg.).