Wednesday, 7 January 2015

St. Bernard of Clairvaux's Life of St. Malachy of Armagh, by H. J. Lawlor. Part 11.


St. Malachy's Apostolic Labours, Praises and Miracles.

1140, October
42. (23). Malachy embarked in a ship, and after a prosperous voyage landed at his monastery of Bangor,576 so that his first sons might receive the first benefit.577 In what state of mind do you suppose they were when they received their father—and such a father—in good health from so long a journey? No wonder if their whole heart gave itself over to joy at his return, when swift rumour soon brought incredible gladness even to the tribes578 outside round about them. In fine, from the cities and castles and hamlets they ran to meet him, and wherever he turned he was received with the joy of the whole land.579 But honour is not to his taste. He exercises his office as legate; many assemblies are held in many places, so that no region, or part of a region, may be defrauded of the fruit and advantage of his legation. He sows beside all waters;580 there is not one who can escape from his sedulous care. Neither sex, nor age, nor condition, nor [religious] profession is held in account.581 Everywhere the saving seed is scattered, everywhere the heavenly trumpet sounds. He scours every place, everywhere he breaks in, with the sword of his tongue unsheathed to execute vengeance upon the nations and punishments upon the peoples.582 The terror of him is on them that do evil.583 He cries unto the unrighteous, deal not unrighteously, and to the wicked, lift not up the horn.584 Religion is planted everywhere, is propagated, is tended. His eyes are upon them,585 his care is for their necessities. In councils, which are everywhere held, the ancient traditions are revived, which, though their excellence was undisputed, had fallen into disuse by the negligence of the priests. And not only are the old restored, new customs are also devised; and whatsoever things he promulgated are accepted as though issued from heaven, are held fast, are committed to writing for a memorial to posterity. Why should we not believe those things were sent from heaven which so many heavenly miracles confirm? And that I may make what has been said credible, let me touch on some of these miracles in a few words. For who can enumerate all? Though I confess I had rather dwell on those things which can be imitated than on those which can only excite wonder.

43. (24). And in my judgement the first and greatest miracle that he exhibited was himself.586 For to say nothing of his inner man,587 the beauty and strength and purity of which his habits and life sufficiently attested, he so bore himself even outwardly in a uniform and consistent manner, and that the most modest and becoming, that absolutely nothing appeared in him which could offend the beholders. And, indeed, he who offends not in word, the same is a perfect man.588 But yet in Malachy, who, though he observed with unusual care, ever detected, I will not say an idle word,589 but an idle nod? Who ever knew his hand or his foot to move without purpose? Yea, what was there that was not edifying in his gait, his mien, his bearing, his countenance? In fine, neither did sadness darken nor laughter turn to levity the joyousness of his countenance.590 Everything in him was under discipline, everything a mark of virtue, a rule591 of perfection. Always he was grave, but not austere. Relaxing at times, but never careless; neglecting nothing, though for a time ignoring many things. Quiet often, but by no means at any time idle.592 From the first day of his conversion to the last of his life, he lived without personal possessions.593 He had neither menservants nor maidservants,594 nor villages nor hamlets, nor in fact any revenues, ecclesiastical or secular, even when he was a bishop. There was nothing whatever ordained or assigned for his episcopal mensa, by which the bishop might live; for he had not even a house of his own. But he was almost always going about all the parishes595 serving the Gospel,596 and living of the Gospel,597 as the Lord appointed for him when he said, The labourer is worthy of his hire.598 Except that more frequently, making the Gospel itself without charge,599 as a result of the labours of himself and his companions, he brought with him that by which he might sustain himself and those who laboured with him in the work of the ministry.600 Further, if at times he had to rest he did so in the holy places which he himself had scattered through the whole of Ireland; but he conformed to the customs and observances of those with whom it pleased him to tarry, content with the common life and the common table. There was nought in his food, nought in his clothing, by which Malachy could be distinguished from the rest of the brethren; to such a degree, though he was greatest, did he humble himself in all things.601

44. Then, when he went out to preach, he was accompanied by others on foot, and on foot went he himself, the bishop and legate. That was the apostolic rule; and it is the more to be admired in Malachy because it is too rare in others. The true successor of the Apostles assuredly is he who does such things. But it is to be observed how he divides the inheritance with his brothers,602 equally descendants of the Apostles. They lord it among the clergy;603 he, though he was free from all men, made himself the servant of all.604 They either do not preach the Gospel and yet eat, or preach the Gospel in order that they may eat; Malachy, imitating Paul, eats that he may preach the Gospel.605 They suppose that arrogance and gain are godliness;606 Malachy claims for himself by inheritance labour and a load.607 They believe themselves happy if they enlarge their borders;608 Malachy glories in enlarging charity.609 They gather into barns610 and fill the wine-jars, that they may load their tables; Malachy collects [men] into deserts and solitudes that he may fill the heavens. They, though they receive tithes and first-fruits and oblations, besides customs and tributes by the gift of Cæsar and countless other revenues, nevertheless take thought what they shall eat or what they shall drink;611 Malachy having nothing of such things, yet makes many rich612 out of the store-house of faith. Of their desire and anxiety there is no end; Malachy, desiring nothing, knows not how to think about the morrow.613 They exact from the poor that which they may give to the rich; Malachy implores the rich to provide for the poor. They empty the purses of their subjects; he for their sins heaps altars614 with vows and peace-offerings.615 They build lofty palaces, raise up towers and ramparts to the heavens.616 Malachy, not having where to lay his head,617 does the work of an evangelist.618 They ride on horses619 with a crowd of men, who eat bread for nought, and that not their own;620 Malachy, hedged round with a college of holy brothers, goes about on foot, bearing the bread of angels,621 with which to satisfy the hungry souls.622 They do not even know the congregations;623 he instructs them. They honour powerful men and tyrants; he punishes them. O, apostolic man, whom so many and so striking signs of his apostleship624 ennoble! What wonder, then, if he has wrought wondrous things when he himself is so wonderful? Yet truly not he but God in him.625 Moreover, it is said, Thou art the God that doest wonders.626

45. (25). There was a woman in the city of Coleraine627 who had a demon. Malachy was called; he prayed for the possessed; he commanded the invader and he went out. But his iniquity was not yet fully satisfied, and he entered into an unhappy woman who happened to be standing by. And Malachy said, "I did not release that woman from your grasp in order that you might enter this one; go out of her also." He obeyed, but went back to the former woman; and driven forth from her once more, he again went into the second. So for some time he vexed them alternately, fleeing to and fro. Then the saint, indignant that he was mocked by a demon, summoned up his spirit, and shouted; and when he had made an attack on the adversary with all the forces of faith, he drove the demon away from both, no less vexed than those whom he had vexed. But do not suppose, reader, that the delay which he caused the saint was due to his own strength: it was permitted by the divine dispensation, evidently in order that by this as well the power of the evil one as the victory of Malachy might be made more manifest.

Hear now what he did elsewhere, but not by reason of his presence. Assuredly what he had power to accomplish when absent, he could do also when present.

46. In a district of the northern part of Ireland a sick man lay in his house. His sickness was beyond doubt due to the evil influence of demons. For one night he heard them talking; and one said to another, "See that this wretched man does not touch the bed or bedding of that hypocrite, and so escape from our hands." The man perceived that they were speaking of Malachy, who, as he remembered, had not long before passed a night in that house. And the bedding was still in its place; and taking courage, with his utmost effort he began to crawl, weak in body but strong in faith. And lo, in the air there was clamour and shouting: "Stop him, stop him, hold him, hold him; we are losing our prey." But, carried on by faith and the desire to escape, the more they shouted the more he hastened to the remedy, straining with knees and hands. And when he reached the couch, and went up on it, he rolled himself in the bed-clothes, and heard the wailing of them that lamented, "Alas, alas, we have betrayed ourselves, we have been deceived, he has escaped."628 And quicker than a word, there left him the terror of the demons and the horror which he suffered, and with them all his sickness.

In the city of Lismore a man vexed by a demon was delivered by Malachy.

Also once, when he was passing through Leinster, an infant was brought to him who had a demon, and he was brought back whole.

In the same region he ordered a mad woman,629 bound with cords, to be loosed and to be bathed in water which he blessed. She washed and was healed.

Another woman also in Saul,630 a region of Ulaid,631 who was tearing her own limbs with her teeth, he cured by praying and touching her.

There was a madman, who predicted many things to come. His friends and neighbours brought him to the man of God, bound strongly with cords, because his very madness had made him strong to do hurt and exceeding terrible. Malachy prayed, and immediately the sick man was healed and released. This was done in a certain place, the name of which we omit because it has a very barbarous sound, as also have many others.632

At another time in the above-mentioned city of Lismore,633 the parents of a dumb girl634 brought her to him in the midst of the street as he passed, asking him with much entreaty that he would deign to help her. Malachy stood and prayed; and he touched her tongue with his finger and spat635 upon her mouth, and sent her away speaking.

47. (26). Going out of a certain church he met a man with his wife, and she could not speak. And when he was asked to have mercy on her, he stood in the gate, the people surrounding him; and he gave a blessing upon her, and bade her say the Lord's Prayer. She said it, and the people blessed the Lord.

In a city called Antrim636 a certain man lying on a bed, now deprived for twelve days of the use of his tongue, at the bidding of the saint, who visited him, recovered his speech and received the Eucharist; and so fortified he breathed his last breath in a good confession.637 O, fruitful olive tree in the house of God!638 O, oil of gladness,639 giving both anointing and light! By the splendour of the miracle he gave light to those who were whole, by the graciousness of the favour he anointed the sick man, and obtained for him, soon about to die, the saving power of confession and communion.640

One of the nobles came in to him, having somewhat to say to him;641 and while they were speaking, full of faith642 piously stole three rushes from the couch on which Malachy sat, and took them with him: and God wrought many things as a result of the pious theft, by that man's faith and the sanctity of the prelate.

By chance he had come to a city called Cloyne.643 And when he was sitting at table a nobleman of that city came in and humbly prayed him for his wife, who was pregnant, and had passed the appointed time of parturition, so that all wondered, and there was none who did not believe that her life was in danger. With him also Nehemiah,644 the bishop of that city, who was sitting next to him, made request to Malachy, and others also as many as were present reclining together. Then he said, "I pity her, for she is a good and modest woman." And offering the man a cup which he had blessed, he said, "Go, give her to drink, and know that when she has taken the draught of blessing645 she will bring forth without delay, and without danger." It was done as he commanded, and that very night there followed that which he promised.

He was sitting in a plain with the count of Ulaid, dealing with certain matters, and a great multitude646 was about them. There came a woman who had long been with child. She declared that contrary to all the laws of nature she had already been pregnant for fifteen months and twenty days. Malachy having pity for this new and unheard-of trouble, prayed, and the woman was delivered. Those who were present rejoiced and wondered. For all saw with what ease and rapidity she brought forth in the same place, and the sad portent of birth denied was changed to a happier marvel.

48. (27). There happened in the same place an event with a similar miracle but a different issue. He saw a man who was reported to be consorting publicly with his brother's concubine; and he was a knight, a servant of the count. And publicly accosting the incestuous man he displayed himself to him as another John, saying, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's concubine.647 But he, nevertheless, in his turn displaying himself to Malachy as another Herod, not only did not hearken to him, but even answered him haughtily, and before them all swore that he would never put her away. Then Malachy, much agitated, for he was vehemently zealous for righteousness, said, "Then God shall separate you from her against your will." Paying little heed the man went away at once in a rage. And meeting the woman not far from the crowd which was in the place, he treated her evilly and with violence, as though he wholly belonged to Satan to whom he had a little before been delivered.648 Nor was the crime hidden. The damsel who accompanied the lady ran back to the house (for it was not far from the place), and, breathless, announced the wickedness that had taken place. At the word her brothers, who were at home, enraged at the dishonour done to their sister, rushed thither with all haste and slew the enemy of virtue, taken in the very place and act649 of crime, piercing him with many wounds. The assembly was not yet dismissed when, lo! his armour-bearer proclaimed what had happened. And all wondered that the sentence of Malachy had taken such speedy effect. When this word was heard all evil-doers (for there were many in the land) feared and, being terrified, purified themselves, washing their hands in the blood of the ungodly.650

49. (28). Dermot the count,651 who had now for a long time lain on his bed, he sprinkled with blessed water, and caused him to rise up without delay, and so strong that he mounted his horse on the spot, surpassing assuredly the hope of himself and of his friends—rebuking him severely at the same time because he was a bad man serving his belly652 and his appetite immoderately.

In the town of Cashel a man came before him with his paralysed son, asking that he should be healed.653 And Malachy, praying briefly, said, "Go thy way; thy son shall be made whole."654 He went, and on the morrow he returned with his son, who was nevertheless by no means whole. Then Malachy rose and standing over him prayed at greater length, and he was made whole. And turning to the father he said, "Offer him to God." The man assented, but did not keep his promise; and after some years his son, now a young man, relapsed into the same state, no doubt because of his father's disobedience and his violation of the pledge.

Another man came from a long distance, when Malachy was in the borders of Munster, bringing to him his son, who was entirely deprived of the use of his feet. When he inquired how this had happened to him, he said, "As I suspect, by the malignity of demons"; adding, "It was they, if I mistake not, who, when he was playing in a field, caused a sleep to fall upon him,655 and when the child awoke he found himself so." Saying this, he poured forth his petition with tears, and earnestly sought help. Malachy pitying him prayed, bidding the sick boy in the meantime to sleep there upon the ground. He slept, and he arose whole. Because he had come from far656 he kept him some time in his company, and he used to walk with him.

50. In the monastery of Bangor a certain poor man was maintained by the alms of the brothers; and he received a small sum every day, for performing some office in the mill. He had been lame for twelve years, creeping on the ground with his hands, and dragging his dead feet after him. Him Malachy found one day before his cell, sad and sorrowful, and asked him the cause. And he said, "You see how for a long time I am miserably troubled and the hand of the Lord is upon me;657 and lo, to increase my distress, men who ought to have had pity, rather laugh at me and cast my wretchedness in my teeth." And when he heard him, moved with compassion, he looked up to heaven,658 at the same time raising his hands. Having said a short prayer he entered his cell, and the other rose up. And standing upon his feet he wondered if it was true, suspecting that he was in a dream.659 But he began to move with slow steps, for he did not altogether believe that he could walk. At length, as it were waking out of a deep sleep,660 he recognized the mercy of the Lord upon him; he walked firmly, and returned to the mill leaping and exulting and praising God. When those saw him who had before seen and known him they were filled with wonder and amazement,661 supposing it to be a spirit.662

Malachy likewise healed a dropsical man by praying, who remained there in the monastery and was appointed shepherd.

51. A city of Ireland called Cork was without a bishop. They proceeded to an election; but the various parties did not agree, each, as is usual, wishing to appoint their own bishop, not God's.663 Malachy came to the place when he heard of the disagreement. Calling together the clergy and people he took pains to unite the hearts and desires of the opposing parties. And when they had been persuaded that the whole business ought to be entrusted to him, on whom in a very special manner lay the care of that as also of the other churches664 throughout Ireland,665 immediately he named to them, not any of the nobles of the land,666 but rather a certain poor man whom he knew to be holy and learned; and he was a stranger.667 He was sought; and it was announced that he was lying in bed, and so weak that he could in no wise go out unless carried in the hands of those who ministered to him. "Let him rise," said Malachy; "in the name of the Lord I command it; obedience will save him." What was he to do? He wished to obey, but he thought himself unfitted; for though it should be possible for him to go, he dreaded to be a bishop. So with the will to be obedient twin enemies were contending, the load of weakness and the fear of the burden. But the first conquered, the hope of salvation being given him as an aid. Therefore he made the attempt, he moved, tested his power, discovered that he was stronger than usual. Faith increased along with power, and again faith made stronger gave in its turn increase of power. Now he was able to rise unassisted, now to walk somewhat better, now not even to perceive weariness in walking; at length, to come to Malachy without difficulty and quickly, unaided by man. He promoted him, and put him into the chair, with the applause of clergy and people. This was done without question, because neither did they dare to oppose the will of Malachy in any way, seeing the sign which he had wrought; nor did he hesitate to obey, being made surer, by so evident a proof, of the will of God.

52. (29). A certain woman was diseased with an issue of blood;668 and she was of noble birth and very dear to Malachy, though by reason of the nobility rather of her character than of her descent. When she was entirely failing, her strength no doubt being exhausted with her blood, and was now near the end, she sent to the man of God, in order that—the only thing that remained to be done—he might help her soul who should see her no more in the body. When Malachy heard it he was troubled, because she was a woman of virtue, and her life fruitful in work and example. And perceiving that he could not reach her in time he called Malchus, for he was young and active (he is that brother of Abbot Christian whom we mentioned above),669 and said, "Haste, take her these three apples on which I have invoked the name of the Lord; I am assured of this, that when she tastes these she shall not taste of death before she sees us,670 though we shall follow somewhat more slowly." Malchus hastened as he was commanded, and when he came he went in to the dying woman, showing himself another servant of Elisha, except that his work was more efficacious.671 He bade her take that which Malachy had blessed and sent to her, and to taste it if by any means she could. But she was so refreshed when she heard Malachy's name, that she was able to obey, and indicated by a nod (for she could not speak) that she wished to be raised up for a little while. She was raised up, she tasted; she was strengthened by what she tasted, she spoke, and gave thanks. And the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon her,672 and she rested most sweetly in it, having long ceased to enjoy the benefit of sleep, or to partake of food. Meanwhile her blood was staunched673 and awaking after a while she found herself whole,674 but she was still weak from long fasting and loss of blood. If in any degree the cure was not complete,675 on the following day the wished-for presence and appearance of Malachy made it perfect.

53. (30). A nobleman lived in the neighbourhood of the monastery of Bangor, whose wife was sick nigh unto death.676 Malachy, being asked to come down ere she died,677 to anoint the sick woman with oil,678 came down and went in to her; and when she saw him she rejoiced greatly, animated by the hope of salvation. And when he was preparing to anoint her, it seemed to all that it ought rather to be postponed to the morning; for it was evening. Malachy assented, and when he had given a blessing over the sick woman, he went out with those who were with him. But shortly afterwards, suddenly there was a cry made,679 lamentation and great wailing through the whole house, for it was reported that she had died. Malachy ran up when he heard the tumult, and his disciples followed him. And coming to the bed, when he had assured himself that she had breathed her last, he was greatly troubled in mind, blaming himself that she had died without the grace of the sacrament. And lifting up his hands to heaven he said, "I beseech thee, Lord, I have done very foolishly. I, even I, have sinned,680 who postponed, not she who desired it." Saying this he protested in the hearing of all that he would not be comforted,681 that he would give no rest to his spirit,682 unless he should be allowed to restore the grace which he had taken away. And standing over her, all night he laboured in his groaning; and, instead of the holy oil, flooding the dead woman with a great rain of tears,683 he bestowed on her such a substitute for the unction as he could. Thus did he; but to his companions he said, "Watch and pray."684 So they in psalms, he in tears, passed a night of vigil. And when the morning came the Lord heard His saint, for the Spirit of the Lord was making intercession for him, who maketh intercession for the saints with groanings that cannot be uttered.685 Why more? She who had been dead opened her eyes,686 and, as those do who wake from a deep sleep, rubbing her forehead and temples with her hands, she rose upon the bed, and recognizing Malachy, devoutly saluted him with bowed head. And mourning being turned into joy,687 amazement took hold of all, both those who saw and those who heard. And Malachy also gave thanks and blessed the Lord. And he anointed her, nevertheless, knowing that in that sacrament sins are forgiven, and that the prayer of faith saves the sick.688 After this he went away, and she recovered, and after living for some time in good health, that the glory of God should be made manifest in her,689 she accomplished the penance which Malachy had enjoined upon her, and again fell asleep690 in a good confession,691 and passed to the Lord.

54. (3). There was also a woman whom a spirit of anger and fury692 dominated to such an extent that not only her neighbours and relatives fled from her society, but even her own sons could scarcely endure to live with her. Shouting, rancour and a mighty tempest693 wherever she was. Violent, fiery, hasty, terrible with tongue and hand, intolerable to all, and hated. Her sons, grieving both for her and for themselves, dragged her into the presence of Malachy, setting forth their lamentable complaint with tears. But the holy man, pitying both the sickness of the mother and the trouble of her sons, called her aside, and made urgent inquiry whether she had ever confessed her sins. She replied, "Never." "Confess," said he. She obeyed; and he enjoined penance on her when she made confession, and prayed over her that Almighty God might give her the spirit of meekness,694 and in the name of the Lord Jesus bade her to be angry no more. Such meekness followed that it was plain to all that it was nothing else than a marvellous change effected by the right hand of the Most High.695 It is said that she is still living to-day, and is so patient and gentle that, though she used to exasperate all, now she cannot be exasperated by any injuries or insults or afflictions. If it be allowed me, as the Apostle says, to be fully persuaded in my own mind,696 let each accept it as he will; for me, I give it as my opinion that this miracle should be regarded as superior to that of raising the dead woman, mentioned above, inasmuch as there the outward, but here the inner man697 was restored to life. And now let us hasten to what remains.

55. A man who as regards the world was honourable, as regards God devout, came to Malachy and complained to him concerning the barrenness of his soul,698 praying that he would obtain for him from Almighty God the grace of tears. And Malachy, smiling because he was pleased that there should be spiritual desire from a man of the world, laid his cheek on the cheek of the other as though caressing him, and said, "Be it done unto you as you have asked."699 From that time rivers of waters ran down his eyes700 so great and so nearly incessant that the phrase of Scripture might seem applicable to him: "A fountain of gardens, a well of living waters."701

There is an island of the sea in Ireland, from of old fruitful of fishes;702 and the sea there abounds in fish. By the sins of the inhabitants, as it is believed, the wonted supply was taken away, and she that had many children was waxed feeble,703 and her own great usefulness utterly dwindled away. While the natives were grieving, and the peoples taking ill the great loss, it was revealed to a certain woman that a remedy might be effected by the prayers of Malachy; and that became known to all, for she herself proclaimed it. By the will of God it happened that Malachy arrived. For while he was going round and filling the region with the Gospel, he turned aside thither that to them also he might impart the same grace.704 But the barbarous people,705 who cared more for the fishes,706 demanded with all vehemence that he would deign to regard rather the sterility of their island. And when he answered that it was not for that he had come, but that he desired to catch men rather than fish,707 yet seeing their faith708 he kneeled down on the shore and prayed709 to the Lord that, though they were unworthy of it, he would not deny them the benefit granted long before, since they sought it again with so great faith. The prayer went up,710 there came up also a multitude of fishes,711 and perhaps more fruitful than in ancient days; and the people of the land continue to enjoy that abundance to this day. What wonder if the prayer of a righteous man which penetrates the heavens,712 penetrated the abysses,713 and called forth from the depth of the sea so great supplies of fish?

56. There came, on one occasion, three bishops into the village of Faughart,714 which they say was the birthplace of Brigit the virgin;715 and Malachy was a fourth. And the presbyter who had received them with hospitality, said to him, "What shall I do, for I have no fish?" And when he answered that he should seek them from the fishermen, he said, "For the last two years no fish have been found in the river;716 and for that reason the fishermen also are all scattered and have even abandoned their art." And Malachy replied "Command them to let down the nets717 in the name of the Lord." It was done, and twelve salmon were caught. They lowered them a second time, and catching as many more they brought to the tables both an unlooked-for dish and an unlooked-for miracle. And that it might be clear that this was granted to the merits of Malachy, the same sterility nevertheless continued also for the following two years.

[576] Of which, it appears from this and other passages (see p. 33, n. 1), he was still abbot.

[577] 2 Cor. i. 15.

[578] Gentibus.

[579] Ps. xlviii. 2.

[580] Isa. xxxii. 20.

[581] Cp. Serm. ii. § 3. Perhaps here, as in that passage, we should read person (persona) for profession (professio).

[582] Ps. cxlix. 6, 7.

[583] Ps. xxxiv. 16; 1 Pet. iii. 12.

[584] Ps. lxxv. 4 (vg.).

[585] Ps. xxxiv. 15; 1 Pet. iii. 12.

[586] St. Bernard's secretary, Geoffrey, recalls this sentence (V.P. iii. 1). He mentions the saint's many miracles and then proceeds, "But, as he himself says, in commendation of St. Malachy, the first and greatest miracle that he displayed was himself." About half of the present section is embodied by Gerlatus in his description of the character of Godscalcus (M.G.H., Scr. xvii. 700).

[587] Eph. iii. 16.

[588] Jas. iii. 2.

[589] Matt. xii. 36.

[590] Cp. Serm. ii. § 4.

[591] Cp. Consecratio in Ordering of Deacons (Gregorian Sacramentary).

[592] Cp. Serm. ii. § 4.

[593] This statement must be accepted with some reserve. Malachy must have had personal property while he was coarb of Patrick. And accordingly Serm. i. § 6, connects his voluntary poverty with his episcopate in Down, and above (§ 21) his departure from Armagh is represented as a return to poverty. The context shows that St. Bernard is here thinking of the period when he was legate.

[594] Gen. xxxii. 5, etc.

[595] I.e. dioceses.

[596] Cp. Rom. i. 9.

[597] 1 Cor. ix. 14.

[598] Luke x. 7.

[599] 1 Cor. ix. 18; cp. Serm. ii. § 1.

[600] Phil. iv. 3 combined with Eph. iv 12; cp. Acts xx. 34.

[601] Matt. xviii. 4, combined with Ecclus. iii. 20.

[602] Luke xii. 13.

[603] 1 Pet. v. 3 (vg.).

[604] 1 Cor. ix. 19.

[605] Cp. De Dil. 17: "Paul did not preach the Gospel that he might eat, but ate that he might preach the Gospel; for he loved not food but the Gospel." The reference is of course to 1 Cor. ix.

[606] 1 Tim. vi. 5.

[607] Opus et onus.

[608] Amos i. 13.

[609] Cp. 2 Cor. vi. 11.

[610] Matt. vi. 26.

[611] Matt. vi. 25, 31.

[612] 2 Cor. vi. 10.

[613] Cp. Matt. vi. 34.

[614] Secret of Mass for Nativity of St. John Baptist, etc.

[615] Exod. xxxii. 6, etc.

[616] Cp. Gen. xi. 4.

[617] Matt. viii. 20; Luke ix. 58.

[618] 2 Tim. iv. 5.

[619] Jer. vi. 23, etc.

[620] 2 Thess. iii. 8, 12.

[621] Ps. lxxviii. 25.

[622] Ps. cvii. 9.

[623] Plebes.

[624] 2 Cor. xii. 12 (vg.).

[625] Cp. 1 Cor. xv. 10.

[626] Ps. lxxvii. 14.—The following narratives of Malachy's miracles are not in chronological order. They are arranged according to their character. Thus the first four (§§ 45, 46) are instances of his power over demons.

[627] Coleraine is said to have been founded by St. Patrick; and it was certainly a religious establishment at least as early as the sixth century (Adamnan, i. 50). One of its erenachs died in 1122 (A.F.M.). The word "city" implies that the community was still in existence.

[628] Compare the story of St. Gall listening to the conversation of the demon of the mountain and the demon of the waters, told in Stokes's Celtic Church in Ireland, p. 145, from the Life of St. Gall in M.G.H., Scr. i. 7.

[629] The first of three miracles of healing the insane.

[630] In Lecale, co. Down, near Downpatrick. There St. Patrick made his first convert, and there he died. It is not easy to explain why St. Bernard calls it a "region." See further, p. 113, n. 3.

[631] Ulaid was a district which included the greater part of the present county of Down, and the southern part of Antrim.

[632] For a similar avowal by Jocelin, who wrote in the same century as St. Bernard, and other illustrative passages, see Adamnan, p. 4.

[633] See § 8, and above in this section.

[634] The first of three healings of dumb persons.

[635] Mark vii. 33.

[636] The word "city" implies that there was a religious community at Antrim. That this was the case is proved by the round tower which still remains, and other evidence (Reeves, p. 63). But apparently the Annals do not refer to any monastery or church at that place. See, however, U.A. and A.F.M. at 1096 for a possible exception.

[637] 1 Tim. vi. 13.

[638] Ps. lii. 8 (vg.).

[639] Ps. xlv. 7.

[640] Cp. Serm. ii. § 8.

[641] Luke vii. 40.

[642] Acts vi. 5.

[643] Printed text, Conuama, no MS. variants being recorded in the margin: perhaps a misprint for Clonuama. Mabillon has Duevania and K Duenuania. A seems to read Clueuuania. All these variants point to Cluain uama (the meadow of the cave), the Irish name for Cloyne, which is undoubtedly the place referred to (see next note). The next two miracles are concerned with childbirth. The first of them may have been related to St. Bernard by Marcus, the author of Tundale's Vision (see Friedel and Meyer, La Vision de Tondale, p. iv., and above p. lxv. n. 3).

[644] Nehemiah Moriarty, who died in 1149 (A.F.M.), being then, it is said, 95 years old (Tundale, p. 5). In Tundale (p. 53 f.) he is one of four bishops who were with St. Patrick in Paradise, the others being Cellach, Malachy and Christian O'Morgair. He is there (pp. 5, 54) called bishop of Cloyne (Cluanensis).

[645] Cp. 1 Cor. x. 16.

[646] Luke vi. 17.

[647] Mark vi. 18.

[648] 1 Cor. v. 5; 1 Tim. i. 20.

[649] John viii. 4.

[650] Ps. lviii. 10 (vg.).

[651] Probably Dermot MacMurrough, who became king of Leinster in 1126, and died in 1171. He was driven out of his kingdom in 1166, and then invited the Anglo-Normans to come to his aid. The result was the conquest of Ireland. His character merits the description which St. Bernard gives of it.

[652] Rom. xvi. 18.

[653] The first of three healings of paralysis.

[654] John iv. 50.

[655] Gen. ii. 21.

[656] Mark viii. 3.

[657] Acts xiii. 11, etc.

[658] Mark vii. 34.

[659] Cp. Acts xii. 9.

[660] Gen. xlv. 26 (vg.).

[661] Acts iii. 8-10.

[662] Mark vi. 49.

[663] This implies that the diocese of Cork had already been founded. But we cannot be sure that St. Bernard is correct when he says that the clergy and people met to elect a bishop, in view of his inability elsewhere (§ 19) to distinguish bishops from abbots. It is at least possible that there was strife between different septs concerning the appointment of a coarb of Barre, founder of the church of Cork. Malachy may have taken advantage of the strife to nominate a ruler who belonged to no sept in the district and who would allow himself to be consecrated bishop. The vacancy may have been made by the death of Donnell Shalvey, erenach of Cork, in 1140 (A.F.M.). The word erenach is sometimes used at this period where we might have expected to find abbot (cp. A.F.M. 1137, quoted in Additional Note C, p. 167).

[664] 2 Cor. xi. 28.

[665] Evidently Malachy was now papal legate. The date of the incident is therefore not earlier than 1140.

[666] It would seem that it was taken for granted that one of the leading men of a sept would be appointed, according to prevalent custom, exemplified in the case of Armagh. This suggests that the vacant office was that of abbot. There would be nothing surprising in the selection of a "poor man," who was not a local magnate, as diocesan bishop.

[667] Luke xvii. 16, 18.—This was probably Gilla Aedha Ua Muidhin, who attended the Synod of Kells in 1152 as bishop of Cork (Keating, iii. 317), and died in 1172 (A.U.). Since he attained "a good old age" there is no reason why he should not have been consecrated as early as 1140 or 1141. He had been a monk of Errew in Lough Con, co. Mayo (A.T. 1172), and was therefore "a stranger," i.e. not a native of Munster. He is called a "poor man," no doubt, for the same reason as Malachy himself (§ 24), because he had embraced the life of voluntary poverty. He had a reputation for piety and learning, for the Annals describe him as "full of the grace of God" (A.U.), and "the tower of devotion and wisdom and virginity of Ireland" (A.T.). And if the tradition is trustworthy that he was abbot of St. John the Evangelist at Cork, founded by Cormac Mac Carthy "for pilgrims from Connaught" (see the charter of Dermot Mac Carthy printed in Gibson's History of Cork, ii. 348), and that it received its later name of Gill Abbey from him, we can explain how he came to be near at hand when the election was taking place.

[668] Matt. ix. 20.—In this and the next two sections we have three miracles wrought on women; one at the point of death, another dead, and the third spiritually dead.

[669] See § 14.

[670] Matt. xvi. 28; Mark ix. 1; Luke ix. 27.

[671] See 2 Kings iv. 29 ff.

[672] Gen. ii. 21.

[673] Luke viii. 44.

[674] Cp. Mark v. 29.

[675] Si quominus. The text seems to be corrupt. A friend suggests the emendation sed quominus deficeret.

[676] Phil. ii. 27 (inexact quotation).—The story told in this section was a favourite of St. Charles Borromeo (Alban Butler, Lives of Saints, ed. Husenbeth, ii. 607).

[677] John iv. 49.

[678] Cp. Mark vi. 13; Jas. v. 14.

[679] Matt. xxv. 6.

[680] 1 Chron. xxi. 8, 17.

[681] Gen. xxxvii. 35.

[682] 2 Cor. ii. 13; cp. Jer. xlv. 3.

[683] Ps. vi. 6 (vg.); Jer. xlv. 3.

[684] Matt. xxvi. 41, etc.

[685] Rom. viii. 26.

[686] Acts ix. 40.

[687] John xvi. 20.

[688] Jas. v. 15.

[689] John ix. 3.

[690] Acts vii. 60.

[691] 1 Tim. vi. 13.

[692] Exod. xv. 8 (vg.).

[693] Ps. l. 3 (vg.).

[694] 1 Cor. iv. 21.

[695] Ps. lxxvii. 10 (vg.).

[696] Rom. xiv. 5.

[697] Eph. iii. 16; cp. 2 Cor. iv. 16.

[698] Ps. xxxv. 12 (vg.).

[699] Matt. viii. 13, combined with John xv. 7.

[700] Ps. cxix. 136.

[701] Cant. iv. 15.

[702] Here and in § 56 we have two miraculous draughts of fish.

[703] 1 Sam. ii. 5.

[704] Cp. Rom. i. 11.

[705] Acts xxviii. 2.

[706] Cp. 1 Cor. ix. 9.

[707] Cp. Luke v. 10.

[708] Cp. Mark ii. 5; Luke v. 20.

[709] Acts xxi. 5.

[710] Acts x. 4.

[711] Luke v. 6; John xxi. 6.

[712] Ecclus. xxxv. 21 (inexact quotation).

[713] Cp. Ps. cvii. 26 (vg.).

[714] Faughart is a parish north of Dundalk.

[715] Apparently the only authority earlier than St. Bernard which makes Faughart the birthplace of St. Brigit is her fourth Life (i. 6, Trias, 547).

[716] The Kilcurry River.

[717] Luke v. 4.