Monday, 2 February 2015

How Christ said the first mass, By Rev. James L. Meagher, D.D. Part 21.



THE COMMUNION CHALICE PREFIGURED.

Fifth: As soon as part of the wine is tasted after a benediction the cup of wine is rendered unfit for any other benediction. Sixth: Even if a full meal is eaten at the close of Sabbath, and the sanctification of the day had passed, it shall be the duty to recite the Habdalah. Seventh: Two degrees of sanctification may be bestowed on one cup of wine, Lastly: The entire Boraitha is in accord with the school of Shammai and with the interruption of R. Jehudah."
We have given these because they relate to the fourth chalice of wine, which each one at the table must drink. This was the chalice Christ blessed and consecrated into his Blood. According to the rules we have given, this must be a large chalice. The one who pronounced "the benediction over the chalice of wine, must taste some," says the Talmud. Christ then partook of the consecrated chalice before giving It to his Apostles, and this is the reason the celebrant first receives Communion before giving It to others. The benedictions over the chalice gave rise to the blessings or crosses over the Elements after the consecration. Then follow many minute regulations for the order of procedure.
"Neither Kiddush nor any other benediction should be made with anything except wine. The teachings of the Rabbis relative to other benedictions mean that the chalice given for the benediction after meals should only be of wine.
"When eating, the unleaven bread on Passover-night, one should recline in an easy position, but this is not required when the bitter herbs are eaten. When wine is drunk, it was taught in the name of R. Na'hman, that a reclining position should be taken, and also that it need not be taken. Still this apparent contradiction presents no difficulty. The statement quoted of R. Na'hman that a reclining position is necessary when drinking wine, refers to the first two cups, and the statement that it is not necessary, refers to the last two cups. The first two cups symbolize the beginning of liberty for the previously enslaved Jews, while the last two cups have no such significations. 1

A FESTIVAL OF REJOICING.

"Leaning backward is not considered reclining, nor is leaning over on the right side considered reclining in an easy position. The woman who sits with her husband need not recline when eating, but If she is a woman of prominence she should do so. A son sitting with his father must recline
"Each cup must contain wine, which when mixed with three parts of water will be good wine If unmixed wine was drunk, the duty has nevertheless also been fulfilled If all the four cups were poured into one and drunk, the duty has also been fulfilled. If the wine was drunk unmixed, the duty of drinking the wine has been acquitted, but the symbolic feature thereof has not been carried out. The cup must contain the color and taste of red wine. The duty of drinking the four cups devolves upon all alike. 2
"It is the duty of every man to cause his household and his children to rejoice on the festival, as it is written: 'And thou shalt rejoice on thy feast.' 3 The men with the thing they like best, and the women with what pleases them most. The thing men like best is of course wine. But what is most pleasing to women? In Babylonia multicolored dresses, and in Judea pressed linen garments. Small fishes should be eaten, as it is taught in the Mishna. 4
"When the first cup is poured out, the blessing pertaining to the festival should be said, and then the benediction over the wine must be pronounced.
"Herbs, and vegetables are then brought, the lettuce is then to be immersed, parts thereof eaten, and the remainder left until after the meal arranged for the night is eaten, then the unleaven cakes are to be placed before him, as well as the lettuce, Charoseth (sauce), and two kinds of cooked food, although it is not strictly obligatory to use the same. During the existence of the holy Temple, the paschal sacrifice was placed before him. Two immersions are necessary, one when the lettuce is immersed, and the other when the bitter herbs are immersed. Fish, together with two eggs, may also serve for the two kinds of cooked food. A man should not place the bitter herbs between the unleaven cakes and eat them that way. Why not? Because the eating of unleaven cakes is a biblical command, while the eating of bitter herbs in this day is only a rabbinical ordinance.

THE CHAROSETH.

It was said of Hillel, (who lived in the second century before Christ,) that he would take a piece of the paschal offering, an unleaven cake, and some bitter herbs, and eat them together, as it is written, 'They shall eat it with unleaven bread and wild lettuce.' 5 The mode of procedure should be said over the unleaven bread, a piece thereof eaten; then another blessing should be said over the bitter herbs and a piece tasted, and finally the unleaven bread, and the bitter herbs should be put together and eaten at the same time, saying, 'This is in remembrance of Hillel's actions when the Temple was still in existence' 6
"When anything is dipped in sauce, the hands should be perfectly clean, that is, previously washed. Thence we infer that the lettuce must be entirely immersed in the Charoseth sauce, for otherwise what need would there be of washing the hands, they would touch the sauce. If a man washed his hands prior to dipping the lettuce the first time, he should nevertheless wash his hands again when dipping the second time. Unleaven bread, bitter herbs, and Charoseth must be dealt out to each man separately, but immediately before the Haggada is read."
The Haggada is the Seder or Liturgy of the Passover. Sometimes they placed a separate table at the head of the couch for each person. But at the Last Supper there were many tables arranged in the form of a U. The lather of the family, or master of the band, recited the service, the others holding the scroll of the Liturgy in their hands, and all recited it with him as the newly ordained priests recite the Liturgy with the bishop during their ordination. The sauce called the Charoseth was a kind of salad made of apples, nuts, almonds, spices, etc., mixed with vinegar.
"What religious purposes serves the Charoseth? It serves as a remembrance of the apple trees. It serves as a remembrance of the mortar which the Israelites were compelled to make in Egypt. Therefore the Charoseth should be made to have an acid taste in memory of the apple-trees, also thick in memory of the mortar.

DUTY OF ADORATION FOR DELIVERANCE.

The spices used in the preparation of the Charoseth were in memory of the straw used in the preparation of the mortar. The sellers of spices in Jerusalem used to cry out in the streets, "Come and buy spices for religious purposes."
"A second cup is poured out, and the son should then inquire of the father the reason for the ceremony. Where a band, and not a family, celebrated the Passover, the youngest at the table took the place of the son and asked the question. "What is the reason of these ceremonies?"
"Rabbon Gamaliel, (St. Paul's teacher,) used to say: 'Whosoever does not mention the following three things on the Passover, has not fulfilled his duty. They are the paschal sacrifice, the unleaven cakes and the bitter herbs. The paschal sacrifice is offered because the Lord passed over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt, as it is written, 'You shall say to them. It is the victim of the passage of the Lord, when he passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, striking the Egyptian and saving our houses.' 7 The unleaven bread is eaten, because our ancestors were redeemed from Egypt as it is written: 'The people therefore took the dough before it was leaven, and tying it in their cloaks put it on their shoulders.' 8 And the bitter herbs are eaten because the Egyptians embittered the lives of our ancestors in Egypt, as it is written: 'And they made their lives bitter with hard work, in clay, and brick, and with all manner of service, wherewith they were overcharged in the works of the earth.' 9
"It is therefore incumbent on every person in all ages, that he should consider as though he had personally gone forth from Egypt, as it is written: 'And thou shall tell thy son that day saying, This is what the Lord did to me when I came forth out of Egypt.' 10 We are therefore in duty bound to thank, praise, adore, glorify, extol, honor, bless, exalt and reverence Him, who wrought all these miracles for our ancestors and for us. For He brought us forth from bondage to freedom, He changed our sorrow into joy, our mourning into a feast. He led us from darkness into light, and from slavery into redemption. Let us therefore say in his presence Hallelujah, sing the Hallel Prayer."

ORIGIN OF LIFTING UP THE HOST.

Hallelujah is in the Hebrew: "Praise Jah" (Jehovah,) "Praise Jehovah." In Church services it is Alleluia.
"The unleaven bread and bitter herbs must be lifted up when about to be eaten, but the meat need not be lifted up, and moreover, if the meat were lifted up, it would appear as if consecrated things were eaten outside the Temple."
This lifting up called in Jewish writings, "waving" was done in this way. First the bread, and then the wine were each in their turn raised up and offered to the Lord, then lowered and "waved" to the north, south, east and west, making a cross. This was done with every sacrifice in the Temple, and this gave rise to the ceremony of raising up and offering the bread and wine, then lowering and making a cross at the offertory of the Mass. This was also probably the origin of lifting up the Host when saying: "Behold the Lamb of God, Behold Him who taketh away the sins of the world!" before giving Communion. The "meat" or the roast paschal lamb was not lifted up during the Passover supper, because it had been lifted up, and "waved" while being sacrificed in the Temple as we will describe later.
"The canticle in the Scriptures 11 was sung by Moses with Israel, when coming up out of the sea. Who recited the Hallel? The prophets ordained that at all times, when they are delivered out of affliction they should say it on account of their redemption.
"All the praises uttered in the Book of Psalms were uttered by David, as it is written: 'Here ended the prayers of David the son of Jesse.' 12 My son Eleazar says that Moses, together with Israel, said it when coming out of the sea, but his colleagues differ with him, maintaining that David said it, but to me, my son's opinion seems more reasonable, for how can it be that the Israelites should slaughter their paschal offerings and take their palm branches and not sing a song of praise?

PSALMS OF THE GREAT HALLEL.

"All the canticles and hymns in the Book of Psalms according to the dictum of R. Eleazar were sung by David for his own sake. But R. Joshua says that he did so for the congregation at large, and the sages say that some were uttered by him for the congregation at large, while others only for his sake, namely, those he uttered in the singular were for his own sake, and those uttered in the plural were for the community at large. The Psalms containing the terms Nitzua'ch and Nigon, were intended for the future, those containing the term Maskil were proclaimed through an interpreter. Where the Psalm commences "Le-David Mizmor" the Shekina rested on David, and then he sang the Psalm, but when it commences "Mizmor Le-David," he first sang the Psalm, and then the Shekina rested on him. Whence it may be concluded that the Shekina does not rest on one who is in a state of idleness, or sorrow, or laughter, or thoughtlessness, or on him who indulges in vain words, but only on one who rejoices in the fulfilment of a duty, as it is written: "But now bring me hither a minstrel (a musician). And when the minstrel played, the jand (inspiration) of the Lord came upon him.
"They said 'Not for our sake, 13 O Lord, not for our sake, but unto thy name give glory.' And the Holy Spirit replied 14 'For my own sake, for my own sake, will I do it.' 'Josue and Israel said it when they did battle with the kings of the Canaanites.' Israel said: 'Not for our sake,' etc., and the Holy Spirit said 'For my sake,' etc. Deborah and Barak said it, when Sisara waged war on them, they said 'Not for our sake,' etc., and the Holy Spirit replied, 'For my own sake,' etc. King Hezekiah and his companions said it when Sennacherib waged war upon them. They said 'Not for our sake,' etc., and the Holy Spirit replied, 'For my sake,' etc., Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah said it, when Nebuchadnezzar was about to throw them in the fiery furnace. They said, 'Not for our sake,' etc., and the Holy Spirit replied, 'For my sake,' etc., Mordechai and Esther said it, when Haman the wicked rose up against them. They said, 'Not for our sake,' etc., and the Holy Spirit replied, 'For my sake,' etc." 15
We have given this quotation from the Talmud, to show that they had a knowledge of the Holy Spirit. These words with others found hundreds of times in the Old Testament and Jewish writings show us, that they had a vague knowledge of the Three Persons of the Trinity.

THE FIVE THINGS OF THE SMALL HALLEL.

"How far is the Hallel to be said? According to Beth Shammai till, 'The joyful mother of children,' 16 according to Beth Hillel till 'Who changeth a rock into a pool of water,' 17 according to another till, 'When Israel went out of Egypt.' " 18
Beth Shammai "House of Shammai" and Beth Hillel "House of Hillel," were two schools of thought founded by these famous leaders of Israel who lived in the second century before Christ. Hillel in Hebrew means "Rich in praise" and Shammai is "Desolated."
"In reading the Shema" (we will give the prayer later) "and the Hallel, the redemption of Israel should be referred to in the past tense, namely: 'Who hath redeemed,' etc., while in the prayer embracing the Eighteen Benedictions, it should be referred to in the future tense, 'Who wilt redeem,' etc., should refer to the future, not to the past. In the prayer for redemption, the sentence 'He causeth to sprout the foundation of help,' should be said and the benediction pronounced after the recital of the Haphtorah (the Prophets) which should be concluded after the blessing for the redemption with the 'Shield of David.'
"A third cup is then poured out, and the benediction after meals is said. After pouring out the fourth cup, the Hallel should be concluded over it, and the blessings on the songs of praise be said. A person may drink as much as he chooses between the second and third cup, but not between the third and fourth. On the fourth cup the Hallel is concluded, and the great Hallel should also be recited thereon.
"If it is necessary to recite the great Hallel why must the small Hallel be recited at the Passover-meal? Because the small Hallel contains the following five things; the exodus from Egypt, the dividing of the Red Sea, the giving of the Law to the Israelites, the resurrection of the dead, and the sufferings of the Messiah. The small Hallel is recited for another reason, namely because it contains prayers for the transporting of the souls of the just from Gehenna (purgatory, not hell of the damned) to heaven as it is written; "O Lord, deliver my soul." 19

A DESSERT UNLAWFUL.

"After the meal and the beverages will have been consumed, the Lord will hand the chalice used for the benediction after meals to Abraham, and Abraham will say: 'I am not worthy, for from me issued Ishmael "God is hearing"; Isaac "Laughter," will then be asked to pronounce the benediction, but he will refuse on the ground that from him issued Esau, "hirsute, hairy"; Jacob, "The Supplanter" will then be offered the chalice, but he will refuse on the ground that he married two sisters, which was afterwards prohibited by law. Moses "Drawer out" will then be requested to say the benediction, but he will refuse on the ground that he was not destined to enter the Promised Land, neither before nor after his death; Josue (in Greek Jesus, "Jehovah will save") will then be asked to accept the chalice, and he will also refuse saying: "I am not worthy, for I died childless." David, "Beloved," will finally be offered the chalice, and he will accept it saying, 'I am indeed worthy and shall recite the benediction,' as it is written, 20 'I will take the chalice of salvation, and I will call upon the name of the Lord.' "
The Talmud has "The cup of salvation will I lift up." The David given here is not King David, who seduced Uriah's wife, killed her husband, a man of blood and battle all his life, whom God would not let build the Temple, that honor being reserved for his son Solomon. The David, innocent according to God's own heart, was the Messiah, who at the Passover or Last Supper took his fourth chalice in his holy and venerable hands with these words, and consecrated it into his own Blood. 21
"It is unlawful to conclude the eating of the paschal sacrifice with a dessert. The paschal offering after the hour of midnight renders the hands unclean. Sacrifices which are rejected, or that have remained beyond their prescribed time also render the hands unclean:"
(See the book Pesachem, Passover of the Babylonian Talmud, which then closes with a few unimportant explanations.)

REPORT BY THE CONSUL MARCUS.

The Tract, Yomah, "Day of Atonement," has as an Appendix the following letter written by Marcus Ambivius, third Roman consul of Syria, whose headquarters were at Cæsarea. The fourth consul of Judea was Annius, the fifth Valerius Gratus, the sixth was Pontius Pilate, who was appointed in the year B. C. 25; the first important act of his administration being to move his headquarters from from Cæsarea to Jerusalem. 22 The scenes therefore here described took place about the time Christ was born,

"A WRITTEN REPORT SENT BY MARCUS, CONSUL OF JERUSALEM, TO ROME.
(Appendix to Tract Yomah, "Day of Atonement.")

"Concerning the service at the Temple, these Jews were reluctant to inform me about it, as they declared it was against their law to inform a Gentile about their manner of serving God. They enlightened me about two subjects only, part of which I saw with my own eyes, and was greatly rejoiced thereat. One was the sacrifice, which they brought on the feast they call Passover; and the second is the entrance of the high priest, whom we call sacerdos major, into the Temple, on the day which to them, in regard to holiness, purity and strengthening of the soul, is the most important of all the days in the year
"The Passover sacrifice which I have partly witnessed as also I was told, the entire ceremony takes place in the following manner. When the beginning of the month, which they call Nisan approached, by the command of the king and the judges, swift messengers visited every one in the vicinity of Jerusalem, who owned flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, and ordered him to hasten to Jerusalem with them, in order that the pilgrims might have sufficient animals for sacrifice and food; for the people were then very numerous, and whoever did not present himself at the appointed time, his possessions were confiscated for the benefit of the Temple. Consequently all owners of flocks and droves came hastily on, and brought them to a creek near Jerusalem, and washed and cleaned them of all dirt.

SURROUNDING JERUSALEM FOR THE PASSOVER.

They believe that in regard to that Solomon said: "As flocks of sheep that are shorn, which come up from the washing, all with twins." 23
"When they arrived at the mountains which surround Jerusalem, the multitude was so great that the grass was not seen any longer, as everything was turned white by reason of the white color of the wool. When the tenth day approached—as on the fourteenth day of the month the sacrifice was brought, every one went out to buy his paschal lamb. And the Jews made an ordinance that when going forth on that mission, nobody should say to his neighbor: 'Step aside,' or: 'Let me pass,' even, if the one behind was king Solomon or David. When I remarked to the priests that this was not seemly or polite, they made answer that it was so ordered to show that before the eyes of God, not even at the time of preparing to serve Him, more especially at the service itself—at that time all were equal in receiving His goodness.
"When the fourteenth day of the month arrived, they all went to the highest tower of the Temple, which the Hebrews call Lul, and the stairway of which was made like those in our temple towers, and held three silver trumpets in their hands, with which they blew. After the blowing they proclaimed the following:
" 'People of God, listen: The time for sacrificing the paschal lamb has arrived. In the name of Him who rests in the great and holy house.'
"As the people heard the proclamation, they donned their holiday attire, for since midday it was a holiday for the Jews, being the time for sacrifice.

Talmud, Babyl., 225.

2 Babyl. Talmud, x. p. 226.

3 Deut. xvi. 14.

4 Talmud, x. p. 227.

5 Numb. ix. 11.

Babyl. Talmud, x. p. 237.

7 Exod. xii-27.

8 Exod. xii. 34.

9 Exod. i. 14.

10 Exod. xiii. 8.

11 Exod. xv.

12 Psalm Ixxi. 20.

13 Psalm cxiii. 1.

14 Isaias, xlviii. 11.

15 Babyl. Talmud, x. pp. 744 to 246.

16 Psalm cxii. 9.

17 Psalm cxii. 5.

18 Psalm cxiv. 1.

19 Psalm cxiv. 4.

20 Psalm cxv. 13.

21 Babyl. Talmud, x. p. 256.

22 See Josephus, Antiq. xiv. xi.; 1. Wars, I x etc.

23 Cant, of Cant., iv. 2.