CHAPTER I. PRELATURES. continued.
Alone in the Franciscan family, the Capuchins do not change the color of their dress when becoming Prelates. The winter cape of the cappa magna is made of otter's fur.
Carmelite Prelates retain in their costume the two colors, brown and white, of the religious habit of the Order. The cassock, simar and cincture ate brown; the mozzetta, mantelletta, ferraiolo and cappa magna, white. The Cardinals belonging to the Order have the privilege of wearing this costume lined and trimmed in purple, with purple stockings and a purple cincture.
All Cardinals, both secular and regular, wear the proper insignia of the Cardinalate—hat, biretta, and skull cap of scarlet silk—without regard to the color of their habit. (a)
|Galero (Galerus, Pontifical Hat) for an Archbishop|
© picture: Museo Diocesano di Reggio Calabria
Likewise, Bishops, whatever their origin, are all entitled to wear the hat with green cordons and tassels, (b) the purple biretta (c) and skull-cap, (d) these being the proper insignia of the episcopal office.
|purple biretta and skull-cap|
The Abbots nullius dioeceseos (i. e., belonging to no diocese), usually called Abbots nullius, are those who have full jurisdiction over a certain territory and its inhabitants, with absolute exemption from the authority of any Bishop. (e)
Simple Abbots are those who have jurisdiction in their monastery and its annexed territory, though this territory is within the limits of a diocese, the Bishop of which has a right of supervision, precedence and interference in the monastery itself. (f)
Both classes of Abbots, though not invested with the episcopal character, possess the privilege of using the "pontificals," (g) with this difference, that the Abbots nullius are allowed their use at all times and without restrictions, while the privilege of simple Abbots is limited by law and by the presence of the diocesan Bishop. In an Abbey nullius, a Bishop is always considered "outside of his diocese," even if the territory of the Abbey is enclosed in his own diocesan territory; while, on the contrary, in a simple Abbey, the Bishop, in whose diocese the Abbey is located, is in his diocese. (h)
Abbots regiminis, as well as Abbots nullius, add to their monastic habit the pectoral cross and the ring. (i)
They have also the privilege of vesting in the mozzetta when acting within the limits of their territory, and the mantelletta when they live outside. The mozzetta and mantelletta are of the same color as the religious habit. (j) Regularly speaking, they should not make use of the rochet; but ordinarily this,is conceded by special favor of the Holy See. (k)
(a) Gregory XIV., Const. Sanctissimus. — Battandier, Annuaire Pontifical (1903), p.359.
(b) Caer. Episc. I., 1., 4.— Martinucci, Man.Caer. V., ch. II., n. 19.
(c) Leo XIII., Const. Praeolaro divinae gratiae.
(d) Pius IX., Const. Ecclesiarum omnium.
(e) Benedict XIV., De syn. dioec, Book II., ch. XI.— Ferraris, Bibliotheca, art. Abbas.
(f) Sebastianelli, De pereonis, p. 350, n. 297.— Ferraris, loc. cit.
(g) Pius VII., Constit Deoet Romanum Pontificem, July 23, 1823.
(h) Cap. Cum personae. — Cap. Si Papa, De privilegiis, in 6º.— Extrav. An-bitiosae, De rebus Ecclesiae non alienandis, etc. —S. R. C, February 7, 1604.
(i) Pius VII., Const. cit.—Extensive decree of the S. R. C, Sept. 17, 1659.
(j) Taunton, The Law of the Church, Art. "Abbat.," p. 3, n. 10.
(k) S. R. C, Decree of Septemb. 17, 1659, n. 9.— Battandier, Annuaire (1909), p. 421.