CHAPTER I. PRELATURES. continued.
In Rome, they have the prerogative of consecrating Bishops, if there is no Cardinal at hand to perform the ceremony. (a)
Archbishops and Bishops.
This is not the proper place to treat of the origin of the archiepiscopal dignity. Suffice it to say that an Archbishop is a Prelate invested with the episcopal character, and holding a rank immediately superior to that of simple Bishops.
An Archbishop is also called a "Metropolitan," from the ancient custom of calling the Bishop of the capital (metropolis) of a Roman province metropolitanus (b) The title of Metropolitan is not given to titular Archbishops, since they have no ordinary jurisdiction over an ecclesiastical province.
The proper insignia of a Metropolitan Archbishop are the pallium (c) and the cross. (d)
The pallium (or pall) consists of a circular band of white lamb's wool, from which hang two pendants of the same material, one of which is meant to fall down the middle of the back, and the other over the center of the breast. Six little black crosses are embroidered on the band and its lappets. The pallium is worn over the chasuble at solemn High Mass, on certain days determined by the Ceremonial of Bishops.
The "metropolitan cross" commonly, though improperly, called "archiepiscopal cross," is much like the processional cross, (e) and is held or carried by a Subdeacon, or a member of the Prelate's household, in such a way that the crucifix is always turned towards the Prelate. (f)
The pallium and the cross, being tokens of jurisdiction, should not be used outside of the Province over which the Archbishop has authority. (g)
For this reason, titular Archbishops cannot make use of the cross and pallium, since they have no territorial jurisdiction.
A Bishop (a word derived from the Greek Episkopos ("overseer") is an ecclesiastical dignitary who has received, through his consecration, the full priestly character, and has the special charge of governing a determined portion of the Christian flock under the supervision of the Sovereign Pontiff. (h)
An Archbishop or a Bishop is called residential when he occupies a see canonically erected, with residence in and ordinary jurisdiction over the limited territory annexed to the city from which the see takes its name.
He is styled titular when he has no ordinary jurisdiction over the diocese of which he bears the title, his episcopal or archiepiscopal see being under the domination of infidels or schismatics. (i) Formerly, Titular Bishops or Archbishops were also styled "Bishops (or Archbishops) in partibus infidelium" (in the countries of infidels); but, yielding to the protests of the schismatic Greeks, under whose domination most of these titular sees are located, Pope Leo XIII. abolished the title of "Bishop in partibus infidelium," and decreed that henceforth only the title of "Titular Bishop (or Archbishop) of N. in N." (the name of the episcopal city, with that of the ancient Roman province to which the city belonged) should be used: Thus "Right Reverend N. N. N., Titular Bishop of Rosea in Cilicia" (j)
Archbishops and Bishops, when promoted to the rank of "Assistants at the Pontifical Throne," become members of the Papal household. They obtain the privilege of a special place at the Papal "chapels" (k) where they act as book-bearer and candle-bearer, and have the right of celebrating High Mass in presence of the Pope. Together with the brief of appointment, they receive from the Secretariate of Briefs a diploma written on parchment, giving the full list of their rights and privileges, many of which have fallen into disuse, especially those regarding the conferring of benefices. (l)
As members of the Papal Court, the Assistants at the . Pontifical Throne are entitled to wear its insignia, namely, silk clothes in summer. But that privilege is conceded only for the time which they actually spend in Rome; their title of "Assistants" giving them no right of precedence or distinction among the other Bishops, except at the Roman Court. (m)
The title is very seldom granted motu proprio, because the Roman Court wishes the precept retained: "Ask and you shall receive." But, if a Bishop makes application, ' the title is bestowed upon him without the slightest difficulty. (n)
Together with the title of "Assistant at the Pontifical Throne," the Bishop generally receives that of Roman Count, that is "Count of the Apostolic Palace and of the Lateran Court." (o)
(a) Grimaldi, Les Congregations romaines, ch. IX., p. 181.—Mgr. Martinucci, Man. Oaer., V., ch. 11.
(b) Council of Nicaea, can. IV.—Bouix, De Episc., Tom. I., pp. 460 et Seq.
(c) Pontificale Romanum, De pallio. — Caer. Episc, I., xvl.— Mann, Lives of the Popes, Tom. I., Appendix.
(d) Clem. 2. De priviligis. — Thomassin, De vet. et nova Eccl. discipl. (In loco).
(e) This cross should not be double-armed.
(f) Caer. Episc. I., ii. 4.—I., iv. 1.—II., viii. 27.—II., xxii. 8.—I., xv. 2.— Mgr. Martinucci, Man. Oaer., V., ch. iii, n. 60, etc.
(g) Cap, 4, De auct. et usu pallii.
(h) Can. Qui Episcopatum, 11, caus. 8, quaest. 7.
(i) Benedict XIV., De syn. dioec., Book II., ch. vii.— Leo XIII., Constit. In Suprema (June 4, 1882).
(j) Decree of the Propaganda (Febr. 27, 1882.)—Leo XIII.'s Const, cit.
(k) A "chapel" Is a religious service at which the Pope officiates or assists.
(l) Grimaldi, op. cit. ch. V., pp. 61, 62.-Fisqurt Ceremonies de Rome (passini),-Baron Gerame, visit to Rome, p. 156.-T. Pope, Holy Week in the Vatican, p. 852.
(m) Mgr. Barbier De Montault, Le costume et les usages ecclesiastiques, Tom. I., p. 54.
(n) Grimaldi, op. cit., ch. V., p. 62.
(o) Mgr. Barbier De Montault, Traite pratique . . . Tom. I., p.478. - Grimaldi, loc. cit., ch. xxvii., p. 484. - Mgr. A. Battandier, nuaire pontifical (1899, p. 365).