CHAPTER VI. Rochet.
1. Description. — 2. A Sign of Jurisdiction. — S. Religious Prelates. — 4. Rules Determining the Use of the Rochet. — 5. Canons. — 6. Gotta Worn Over the Rochet.
1. The rochet is a close-fitting garment of linen, (a) something like a surplice, but with tight sleeves. The opening for the neck should be cut square, like that of the cotta; the bottom, the shoulder-pieces, and the extremities of the sleeves, ornamented with lace. (b) Under the lace, at the shoulder-pieces and sleeves, is put a silk lining, visible through the lace. This lining is of the same color as the trimmings of the choir cassock, that is, white for the Pope, scarlet for Cardinals, amaranth red for Bishops and Prelates di mantelletta. In penitential seasons, and on occasions of mourning, the lining of a Bishop's rochet is purple. (c) On the same occasions, Cardinals do not change the color of the lining of their rochets, because the trimmings of a Cardinal's mourning dress are scarlet. The Prelates di mantelletta always use red lining at the rochet, because there are for them no other occasions of mourning than the vacancy of the Holy See and the services on Good Friday, and then they wear rochets without lace.
Canons who have the privilege of wearing the rochet are not regularly entitled to have in their rochet any other lining than black, unless the choir cassock granted them be red or purple, in which case, they are permitted to wear the rochet lining of the same color as the cuffs of their sleeves.
When a Prelate di mantellone is granted the use of the rochet, he is allowed in his rochet purple lining only. The rochet of "black Protonotaries" and Vicars General, admits of no other lining than black.
The rochet has, on the breast, a vertical slit, which may be bordered with lace, and is tied near the neck with two ribbons of silk, which are not necessarily white, but may be of the same color as the lining of the rochet.
A plain rochet without lace is a sign of official mourning; such a rochet is worn by all Prelates residing in Rome from the day of the Pope's death until the election of his successor, and at services on Good Friday. The ordinary rochet must have lace and be tastefully plaited.
2. The uncovered rochet is a sign of Ordinary Jurisdiction. Therefore, the Pope and Cardinals all over the world, Archbishops in their provinces, Bishops in their dioceses, alone have the right to wear the rochet uncovered. (d) Practically the rochet is always partly covered with some other vestment. However, a Cardinal at Rome, a Bishop outside of his diocese, and all the Prelates who have the privilege of wearing the rochet without having "ordinary jurisdiction," should entirely cover the rochet with the mantelletta. (e) Bishops in their dioceses, Archbishops in their provinces, and Cardinals everywhere, except at Rome, wear the mozzetta over the rochet. (f)
3. Cardinals and Bishops belonging to religious orders do not wear the rochet, but only the mozzetta. (g) For sacred functions, they take off the mozzetta and put on the surplice. (h) This rule does not apply to Bishops belonging to Orders of Clerics regular or to Religious Congregations. (i)
4. The Pope, Cardinals and Bishops have a particular right to use the rochet. It is the principal part of their choir-habit. The Rubrics of the Missal direct them to keep the rochet on under the alb when they vest for Mass. (j) Bishops may use the rochet for the administration of the sacraments, for the pastoral visitation and for Confirmation given without solemnity. According to the Ceremonial of Bishops, they should wear the rochet when receiving the Viaticum. (k)
The Protonotaries Apostolic of the first three classes wear the rochet without any other restriction than the obligation to cover it with the mantelletta. (l) The same rule holds good for all the Prelates di mantelletta who belong to a Prelatial College. The Prelates di mantelletta, who do not belong to a college, i. e., those who are simply appointed as "Domestic Prelates," are not permitted to wear the rochet in Rome, unless they are granted that privilege by a personal indult. But they are free to wear it outside of Rome. (m)
The Prelates di mantellone are not entitled to wear the rochet, unless they have received a personal indult to do so. At no time are they allowed to wear it in Rome.
Since the motu propria of Pope Pius X. (Feb. 21, 1905), Titular Protonotaries Apostolic have the privilege of wearing the rochet under the black mantelletta. But as they are merely diocesan Prelates, they are never allowed to wear their prelatial costume in Rome. (n)
5. Ordinarily, Canons are granted the use of the rochet, but only within the limits of the diocese.
6. If Canons have the privilege of the canonial cappa magna, their summer costume in choir consists in wearing the cotta over the rochet; unless they have obtained also the privilege of a summer cappa (a cappa without fur). In both cases, they put on the cotta over the rochet when they have to administer a sacrament. (o)
The cotta is worn over the rochet by the Prelates di mantelletta for ecclesiastical functions and the administration of sacraments. (p) This rule applies to the Prelates di mantellone who have obtained the privilege of wearing the rochet. Bishops wear the cotta over the rochet when performing ecclesiastical functions in presence of the Pope, and especially when they receive holy communion at the Pope's hands on Holy Thursday. (q)
(a) Caer. Episc. I., 1., 2, 8.
(b) Pius IX., Brief Sacerdotalia indumenta (May 14, 1858).
(c) The same regulations apply to the albs worn by Prelates when celebrating Mass.
(d) Caer. Episc. I., iii., 1.
(e) Caer. Episc. I., i., 1.—I., iv., 7.
(f) Caer. Episc. I., i., 1—I., iii., 1.
(g) Caer. Episc. I., i., 4.
(h) Caer. Episc. I., i., 4.— Rub. Miss. —S. R. C., Dec. 8, 1701.— Caer. Episc., II xi. 18.— Pont Rom., Do confirm.; De ordin. conf. —This rule in now hardly observed on account of the numerous privileges granted as personal exceptions. When a religious is made Cardinal or Bishop, he ordinarily receives, at the same time, the privilege of wearing the rochet like secular Prelates. The same privilege Is generally granted to Abbots.
(i) Caer. Episc. I., i., 4.
(j) Rub. Miss. (Ritus serv. in cel. Miss., n. 2).—Pont. Rom. (passim).
(k) Caer. Episc. II., xxxviii., 8.
(l) Pius X., Constit, Inter multiplices (1905), nn. 8, 16, 45.
(m) Barbier De Montault, op. cit., p. 355.
(n) Pius X.'s Const. Inter multiplied (1905), n. 64.—Before the motu proprio of Pius X., they had a right to wear the rochet under the mantelletta, but in church ceremonies only; now, they have the same right as the other Prelates, to wear the rochet under the mantelletta everywhere and on every occasion, except in Rome, or in any other place where the Pope might actually reside.
(o) S. R. C, Nov. 24, 1625—Nov. 11, 1641—May 14, 1644—April 16, 1842 —July 18, 1675—January 16, 1677, etc., etc.
(p) Caer. Episc, III., vi., 1.— Fisquet, Ceremonies de Rome, pp. 43, 188, 198, 229.
(q) Un Eveque Suffragant— Ceremonial dee Eveques commente, p. 18.