CHAPTER VII. MOZZETTA.
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Pope Benedict XVI dressed in the special red papal mozzetta
1. Description. — 2. A Sign of Ordinary Jurisdiction. — S. Pope. — 4. Cardinals. — 5. Bishops. — 6. Abbots. —7. Mozzetta Over Mantelletta. — 8. Canons.
1. Mozzetta is an Italian word derived from mozzo, which means cut short. The mozzetta is an ecclesiastical vestment, a short cape, which covers the shoulders, is buttoned over the breast, and to which a small hood is attached. (a)
2. The mozzetta is by itself a sign of jurisdiction. (b) Therefore, it can lawfully be worn only by the Pope, Cardinals and—within the limits of their jurisdiction—by Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots.
The mozzetta is made of different materials and colors according to the different grades of the Sacred Hierarchy.
3. The Pope's jurisdiction being unlimited, he may wear the mozzetta everywhere throughout the world. His mozzetta is of crimson red velvet bordered with ermine. (c) In summer, the velvet mozzetta is replaced by one of red silk and without fur. In penitential seasons, the Pope lays aside velvet and silk, and wears a mozzetta of cloth or serge. From Holy Saturday until the Saturday after Easter, his mozzetta is of white damask. (d)
4. Cardinals having also a universal jurisdiction, as counsellors to the Holy See, may wear the mozzetta everywhere. Their mozzette are made of scarlet or purple material, according to the liturgical season. Both their red and purple mozzette are made of cloth in winter, and of watered silk in summer. On the third Sunday of Advent (Gaudete) and the fourth Sunday of Lent (Laetare), etiquette prescribes that Cardinals wear a mozzetta of rose-colored watered silk.
5. Bishops should wear a mozzetta of woolen material (cloth in winter and merino in summer), silk never being permitted. (e) It is true Bishops who are Assistants at the Pontifical Throne are permitted to wear a costume of silk, but only when they actually live in Rome, and then, they do not wear the mozzetta. (f)
The color of the mozzetta of Bishops must match that of the choir cassock. It is, therefore, purple, (g) except during penitential seasons and on days of mourning, when it is, like the cassock, black with purple stitchings, buttons, buttonholes and lining. The Bishop's purple mozzetta is trimmed with crimson red silk. (h)
As a rule, the mozzetta being a sign of jurisdiction, a Bishop is allowed to wear it only within the limits of his own diocese. (i) The Ceremonial of Bishops (Book I.) gives the different occasions on which a Bishop may wear his mozzetta, namely, when he presides over a religious meeting; for the examination of candidates for Orders, etc. He may wear it when assisting at religious services celebrated without solemnity; but in such cases he should not sit upon his throne; the Ceremonial directs that the Ordinary vested in the mozzetta should sit in the first stall of the choir. He wears it also when he attends a Provincial Council, because all the members of the council are supposed to exercise episcopal jurisdiction per modum unius over the province. (j) But outside of Provincial Councils, even in his own diocese, a Bishop should not wear his mozzetta in presence of his Metropolitan, (k) except over the mantelletta.
When a priest receives the official news of his appointment to an episcopal see, should he actually be in the territory of the diocese to which he is appointed Bishop, he is allowed immediately the use of the mozzetta over the rochet. (l) If he is not within the limits of his diocese, he wears the mantelletta over the rochet. (m)
Bishops belonging to Religious Orders properly so-called, who, according to the Ceremonial of Bishops, are not permitted the use of the rochet, (n) indiscriminately wear the mozzetta, (o) which is not for them an exclusive sign of jurisdiction. The mozzetta is, like all the other parts of their prelatial costume, of the same color as the regular habit of the Order. (p)
6. Abbots, in the places where they have jurisdiction, may wear a mozzetta, the color of which must conform to that of their religious habit.
7. In his own diocese, a Bishop, in presence of a Cardinal, or of his Metropolitan, or of the Apostolic Delegate, must put on the mantelletta over his rochet, and the mozzetta over the mantelletta. (q) If the Cardinal is at the same time a Legate a latere, the Bishop is not allowed the use of the mozzetta, but should content himself with the mantelletta over the rochet. (r)
8. In Rome, through respect for the presence of the Sovereign Pontiff, Cardinals wear the rochet covered with the mantelletta, and the mozzetta over the mantelletta; but in their titles, and outside of Borne, they wear the mozzetta immediately over the rochet.
Residential Patriarchs, when outside the boundaries of their Patriarchates, and Titular Patriarchs, wear, as the distinctive sign of their high dignity, the mozzetta over the mantelletta. (s)
9. Certain Chapters enjoy the privilege of the mozzetta. This canonical mozzetta may have a peculiar shape and color, or be the same as that of Bishops. But, in no case are Canons entitled to wear the canonical mozzetta outside of the diocese to which they belong as Canons. The same rule applies to all canonical insignia. (t)
(a) 'This small hood Is a vestige of a larger one which was still in use, in some places, in the eighteenth century.
(b) Caer. Episc. I., i., 1.
(c) Baron Geramb, Visit to Rome, p. 104, and others.—In summer Pius IX. used to wear a mozzetta of red silk, bordered with eiderdown.
(d) Fisquet, Ceremonies de Rome, p. 37, and passim.—A. Battandier, Annuaire Pontifical (1901), p. 77.
(e) Caer. Episc. I., iii., 1.
(f) The only Prelates entitled to wear a purple silk mozzetta are the Patriarchs, as the mozzetta is an integrant part of the costume they wear in Rome; they are ex officio Assistants at the Pontifical Throne, and, therefore, wear a mozzetta of the same material as the other parts of their costume of Assistants.
(g) Caer Episc., ibid.
(h) S. R. C, April 17, 1827.
(i) Caer. Episcc. I., i., 3.—S. R. C, Sept. 6, 1895.
(j) Caer. Episc. I., iii., 1.
(k) S. R. C. 1668.
(l) Caer. Episc. I., i., 3.
(m) Caer. Episc. I., i., 1.—In both cases, he abtains from wearing the pectoral cross and the ring before his consecration.
(n) I say, "according to the Ceremonial of Bishops" because there are in practice so many exceptions, that this role is now hardly observed, even in Rome.— Battandier, Annuaire Pontifical (1909), p. 421.
(o) Caer. Episc. I., i., 4.
(p) Caer Episc., ibid. —As a rule, the color of the mozzetta is the same as that of the outer part of the religious habit.
(q) Caer Episc. I., iv., 7.—S. R. C, 1663.—Caer Episc. I., i., 4.—S. R. C., Sept. 18, 1666.
(r) Caer. Episc. I., iv., 7.
(s) Barbier De Montault, op. cit., T. I., p. 335.—A. Battandier, Annuaire Pontifical (1898), pp. 66-69.— Grimaldi, op. cit., ch. IX., p. 131.— It is understood that, when they are within the limits of their jurisdiction, they wear the mozzetta directly over the rochet, like other Bishops.
(t) The Sacred Congregation of Rites has frequently insisted on the observation of the above rules. Ordinarily, the lnduits of the Holy See, granting a canonical costume to a Chapter, state that the Insignia must not be worn outside the diocese. Formerly, Canons were not permitted to wear their insignia, as individuals, even outside of the church which was the seat of the Chapter. During the last few years, this discipline has been slightly modified, so as to allow a Canon to vest in his insignia in all parts of the diocese, though alone, and separated from the body of Canons. But the prohibition against wearing the insignia outside of the diocese has never been withdrawn.