THE THREE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES EXPOUNDED.
SIX VOLUMES IN ONE
BY THE DISTINGUISHED EXPONENTS OF CATHOLICISM
REV. HENRY DODRIDGE, D. D.
REV. HENRY EDWARD MANNING, D. D.
REV. F. LEWIS, of Granada
REV. STEPHEN KEENAN
REV. BERNARD VAUGHAN, S. J.
REV. THOMAS N. BURKE, O. P.
A. In the first place, every mortal sin, but not venial sins, which only lessen the fervor of charitable acts, and by breeding evil habits, dispose towards mortal sins. Also, hatred of our neighbor, envy discord, schism, fighting, duelling, unjust war, unmercifulness, and scandal, are all opposite to charity.
Q. What is scandal, and how many sorts of scandal are there?
A. Scandal, if we search the etymology and derivation of the word, signifies something laid in our way, which is apt to make us fall; and so it is taken for the same as a stumbling-block; and in this sense, the Psalmist says, they have laid for me a scandal or stumbling-block, by the way side; Ps. cxxxix. 6. From this literal signification, scandal by a metaphor, is taken to signify any thing that is the cause, or occasion of another's falling into sin: and accordingly, scandal, by St Thomas, the doctor of the schools, is said to consist in words or actions, which are evil, and which occasions the spiritual ruin of another person's soul. Scandal, therefore, i$ a sin of bad example, which is apt to draw or induce other persons into sin, whether it be by words, actions, or omissions. Now, there are several sorts of scandal, viz.: Direct, with an intention ; or indirect, as bad example. Active, which is the scandalous action. Passive, which is the spiritual loss, or ruin.
Q. By how many ways may men scandalize, or concur to the spiritual ruin of their neighbor?
A. Six ways directly, viz.: By command, by advice, by consent, by provoking, by praising, by concurring; Prov. xvii. 15. Three ways indirectly, viz.: By silence, by not hindering, and by not discovering.