Friday, 2 October 2015

Costume Of Prelates Of the Catholic Church according to Roman Etiquette. By The Rev. John A. Nainfa S.S. Part 18.


1. Description. — 2. A Sign of Non-Jurisdiction and High Prelature; Materials and Colors. — 3. Religious Prelates; Titular Protonotaries and Vicars General and Capitular. — 4. Mantelletta of Canons.

1. The mantelletta (that is short mantle), is a sleeveless garment of silk or woolen material, reaching almost to the knees, used by Prelates to cover the rochet The mantelletta is open in front and fastened at the neck with a hook, and its collar fits round the collar of the cassock; two vertical slits permit the insertion of the arms. When extended, it forms a complete circle. The trimmings of the mantelletta (lining, stitchings, etc.) are all of silk, and a silk strip should be sewed around the armholes in order to prevent them from tearing. It is to be remarked that the lining and trimmings of the purple mantelletta should be crimson red, and never purple, as is often seen.

2. The mantelletta is a symbol of restricted jurisdiction, or of non-jurisdiction, or of high Prelacy. A Prelate, who possesses full "ordinary jurisdiction," does not, as a rule, wear this garment within the limits of his jurisdiction. (a)

The Pope does not make use of the mantelletta, because his jurisdiction is universal. Cardinals do not wear it outside of Rome; but they wear it in Rome on account of the Pope's presence. (b) However, in their own titles, where their jurisdiction is not limited, they do not make use of the mantelletta. (c)

An Archbishop or a Bishop, outside of the territory of his jurisdiction, should not wear the rochet, unless it is covered with the mantelletta. (d) Therefore, all Titular Archbishops and Bishops, as well as Residential Bishops outside of their own dioceses, should not appear in their choir-habit without the mantelletta. (e) Even in his own diocese, a Bishop sometimes wears the mantelletta, namely in the presence of a Cardinal, (f) of the Apostolic Delegate, or of the Metropolitan. In such cases, he puts on the mantelletta under the mozzetta; but, if the Cardinal be a Legate a latere, the Bishop puts aside the mozzetta and keeps only the mantelletta over the rochet. (g) In no other case should the mantelletta be worn by a Bishop within the limits of his own diocese. (h)

As a symbol of high Prelature, the mantelletta is worn by those Prelates who occupy the first rank at the Roman Court and are, for that very reason, called "Prelates di mantelletta." Such are the Protonotaries Apostolic di numero, supernumerary and ad instar; the Auditors of the Rota; the Clerks of the Reverend Apostolic Camera; the Voters and Referees of the Signature; the Abbreviators of the Major Park; and such Domestic Prelates as do not belong to a "College?" (i)

3. The mantellette of the Cardinals are of three different colors, red, purple, and rose-colored, agreeing with the colors of their cassocks. The red and purple mantellette are of cloth in winter and of watered silk in summer. The rose-colored mantelletta, as well as the cassock of that color, is reserved for the Sundays of Qaudete and Laetare, and should be of watered silk.

Silk is not permitted as the material for the mantelletta of Bishops, (j) unless they be "Assistants at the Pontifical Throne." The ordinary episcopal mantelletta is of cloth or merino, according to the season, and purple or black, as may be called for by the Liturgy. The same rules hold good for the color of the mantelletta as for that of the choir cassock. The purple mantelletta is always trimmed and lined with crimson red silk; and the black mantelletta, with purple.

The Bishops Assistants at the Pontifical Throne, while living in Rome, and the Prelates di mantelletta, both in Rome and outside, wear the costume prescribed by the etiquette of the Papal Household, which includes a silk mantelletta in summer and one of woolen cloth in winter. The color of this mantelletta is always purple, except during the vacancy of the Holy See, and on Good Friday, when it is replaced by a black cloth mantelletta, trimmed and lined with purple silk. (k)

4. Cardinals and Bishops who belong to Religious Orders wear a mantelletta of a color like that of the outer part of the habit of the Order. (l) Abbots generally follow the same rule.

Cardinal Burke in Choir Dress
The Titular (or Honorary) Protonotaries Apostolic have the privilege of wearing the mantelletta; but their mantelletta is exclusively of black woolen material, lined and trimmed with black silk, purple being absolutely prohibited to them, as they are but diocesan Prelates. (m) Before the motu proprio of Pius X. (February 21, 1905), they had no right to make use of the rochet, and consequently they wore the mantelletta directly over the choir cassock; but, by that motu proprio, Pius X. conceded them the privilege of wearing the rochet under the black mantelletta. By the same act, the Pope entitled all the Vicars General and Vicars Capitular of dioceses, during the time they are in office, to the rank, costume and privileges of Honorary Protonotaries Apostolic ("Black Protonotaries") ; the choir dress of these dignitaries consists, therefore, of a black choir cassock, the rochet, and the black mantelletta; unless they hold higher rank in the Prelature, in which case they wear the costume proper for the class of Prelates to which they belong. (n)

5. Some Chapters have obtained the special privilege of wearing the mantelletta; (o) but, in this case, the mantelletta is not a sign of Prelacy; it is only a part of their insignia as Canons. As such, it can not lawfully be worn outside of the diocese, nor should its use be extended beyond the express terms of the indult of concession.

(a) Caer. Episc. I., i., 1.—I., Iv., 7.

(b) Un Eveque Suffragant op. cit, p. 4.— Barbier di Montault, op. cit., Tom. I., p. 351.— Grimaldi, op. cit., ch. VIII., p. 112.—Other authors.

(c) The same references.

(d) Caer. Episc. I., i., 2, 8.—I., iv., 7.—All authors.

(e) S. R. C, Sept. 23, 1842, in Laburnen.

(f) Caer. Episc. I., i., iv., 2, 3, 7.

(g) Caer. Episc. I., i., iv., 7.

(h) S. R. C, Sept. 18, 1666, in Orestan.

(i) A. Battandier, Annuaire Pontifical (yearly).— "Gerarohia" (yearly).— Baart, The Roman Court, p. 277.— Grimaldi, op. cit, eta. V., pp. 58, seq.

(j) Caer. Episc. I., i., 1.—I. iii., 1.

(k)  Barbier di Montault, op. cit., Tom. I., p. 352, n. 4.

(l) Caer. Episc. I., i., 4.

(m) Const. Inter multiplices (Feb. 21, 1905), n. 64.

(n) Const. Inter multiplices n. 62.

(o) 'The chapter of the Cathedral of Rodez (France) and several Chapters in Italy have been granted that privilege.