THE SEVEN DEADLY SINS EXPOUNDED.
SIX VOLUMES IN ONE
BY THE DISTINGUISHED EXPONENTS OF CATHOLICISM
REV. HENRY DODRIDGE, D. D.
REV. HENRY EDWARD MANNING, D. D.
REV. F. LEWIS, of Granada
REV. STEPHEN KEENAN
REV. BERNARD VAUGHAN, S. J.
REV. THOMAS N. BURKE, O. P.
Q. What are the remedies against lust, and what is the virtue opposite to it ?
A. Flying the occasions; fasting; avoiding idleness, and bad company; reading good books; guarding the senses, but most especially the eyes; meditating on hell; constant prayer; modest in dress; to confess often, and communicate with devotion. The virtue opposite to this vice is chastity, which is a purity of body and mind, making us abstain from carnal pleasures: it is an angelical virtue, which God bestows upon people of prayer upon the obedient, and humble, Wisd. viii. 21. James iv. 6. There is no virtue that renders persons more acceptable to God, than this of chastity, Rev. xiv. 4.
Q. What is envy ?
A. It is a sadness or repining at the worldly or spiritual good of our neighbor, because it seems to lessen our own, or a rejoicing at his damage or distress.
Q. What branches has envy ?
A. Want of love for our neighbor; whispering or talking to break friendship; detraction, a taking away another's reputation ; rash judgment, reproach, contempt of others, hatred, etc. So detestable is this vice, that God warns us not to eat with an envious man, Proverbs xxiii. 6, being contrary to charity, and human society. It makes men like devil's, whose nature is malice. By the devil's envy, death entered into this world. Sap. ii. 24. It caused Cain to kill his brother, Genesis iv. and the Jews, our Saviour Christ; and seeing it destroys in man the love of God and our neighbor, and fills the world with innumerable mischiefs, it is no wonder that it is put among the vices that exclude from heaven, Galatians v. 21. 1 Peter ii. 1.
Q. What are the remedies to cure envy?
A. To consider the unreasonableness of the sin, which neither increaseth our happiness, nor diminishes that of our neighbors; that it robs us of charity, and deforms us to the likeness of the devil or evil spirits, who continually go about to devour us; for it is a kind of death to them, to see that man is happier than themselves, 1 Peter v. 8. To consider the disturbance it gives to a person. To place our affections only on future happiness. The virtue opposite to this vice is charity, or brotherly love, which consists in doing and wishing as much good to our neighbor as we would have others do to us, St. John xiii. 35. This is the chief badge of a Christian. Again, humility is a very powerful virtue, in order to overcome this odious vice; for whosoever is humble, is not sorry that his neighbor is more rich, more learned, and more esteemed, than himself.
Q. What is gluttony?
A. An inordinate desire of meat or drink.
Q. How many ways are there of offending in this kind?
A. Chiefly five, viz.: First, to eat unseasonably to please the appetite, Numbers xi. 5. Proverbs xxi. 17. Secondly, to desire delicacies, or not to be satisfied without choice meat and drink, Ezekiel xvi. 49. Thirdly, to eat or drink to excess, so as to make a person sick, Ecclesiastes xxxvii. 32. Fourthly, to eat with greediness. Fifthly, to seek for what is most pleasing.
Q. Which is the worst and most destructive kind of gluttony?
Q. What is drunkenness?
A. A disordinate use, and desire of intoxicating liquor, so as by it to lose any share of our reason, or senses.
Q. How is it sinful or excusable?
A. It is excusable, if a person knows not the strength of the liquor; if out of surprise he drinks too much, more than to satisfy nature, it is only a venial sin: but if he knows the strength of the liquor, and will drink to excess, it is a mortal sin; 1 Corinthians vi. 10. Isaiah v. 22. It is likewise a grievous sin, as often as it is a considerable prejudice, either to body, estate, or family: it is also a mortal sin, to cause wilfully another to be intoxicated.
Q. What are the effects of drunkenness ?
A. Dullness and incapacity, both in regard of temporal and spiritual duties. Irregularity of the passions. Loquacity, or an unbridled use of the tongue, in lying, swearing, and profane discourse. Scurrility, in abusing and exposing our neighbor. Uncleanness, by pollution, vomiting, etc.
Q. What remedies are there against the sin of drunkenness, and what is the virtue opposite to it ?
A. To consider, that it makes a man worse than a beast; as also to consider the abstinence of Christ and his saints; that it brings beggary, diseases, and damnation. To reflect on the happiness of an abstemious life. The virtue that is opposite to it, is temperance, which bridles the inordinate desire of meat and drink, as likewise all other disorderly passions.