THE FOUR CARDINAL VIRTUES EXPOUNDED.
SIX VOLUMES IN ONE
BY THE DISTINGUISHED EXPONENTS OF CATHOLICISM
REV. HENRY DODRIDGE, D. D.
REV. HENRY EDWARD MANNING, D. D.
REV. F. LEWIS, of Granada
REV. STEPHEN KEENAN
REV. BERNARD VAUGHAN, S. J.
REV. THOMAS N. BURKE, O. P.
Q. Which are the four cardinal virtues, and why so called?
A. Prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance; Sap. viii. 7. They are called cardinal metaphorically, from the Latin word cardo, which signifies a hinge; as being the hinges, or general rules, in the practice of all other moral virtues: and second in dignity, to the theological virtues.
Q. What is prudence?
A. It is a moral virtue, which makes us wary in all our actions, that we may neither deceive others, nor be deceived ourselves, or which suggests to us, what things are to be embraced, and what avoided, with regard always to God's command ; and that we do all things, in their proper time and manner; St. Matt. x. 16; Eccles. iii. 32.
Q. Which are the functions of prudence?
A. Three, viz.: Previous consultation, sound judging, and execution.
Q. How are these functions to be performed ?
A. Eight ways, to consider things past: to attend to what is present: by providing against what may happen hereafter: by reasoning upon every point: by docility, or a promptitude to be informed: by sagacity, or quickness in taking, or fudging: by industry, or quick execution in applying the means: by circumspection, in reflecting upon circumstance: by caution, in providing against evil events.
Q. Which are the defects of prudence ?
A. Precipitation, to engage without due reflection. Inconsideration, the want of attention, before the choice of means. Negligence, or omission in the execution, after a prudent choice.
Q. Which are the excesses in prudence?
A. Carnal prudence, or diligence, in seeking to please corrupt nature. Craft, a subtle and clandestine way of managing, which in facts is called deceit, or tricking, cunning or cheating, called frauds. Solicitude, an anxious care in obtaining-, or conserving worldly goods, or diffidence in providence, for fear of wanting hereafter.
Q. What is justice?
A. It is a moral virtue, which inclines the will to give every man his due, as God requires; Rom. xiii. 7
Q. In what is justice grounded?
A. In dominion, in birth-right, in contract, in gifts, in promises, etc.
Q. What vices are opposite to justice?
A. Usurpation, theft, rapine, detraction, usury, acceptation of persons, etc.
Q. Among what persons, and by what actions are injustices commonly committed ?
A. In purchases, in buying, selling, the price of goods: by judges, witnesses, last wills and testaments; by servants, detractors, etc.
Q. What obligation arises from injustice?
A. Restitution either in . and, or equivalent; let it be goods or reputation.