SIX VOLUMES IN ONE
BY THE DISTINGUISHED EXPONENTS OF CATHOLICISM
REV. HENRY DODRIDGE, D. D.
REV. HENRY EDWARD MANNING, D. D.
REV. F. LEWIS, of Granada
REV. STEPHEN KEENAN
REV. BERNARD VAUGHAN, S. J.
REV. THOMAS N. BURKE, O. P.
Q. What are councils, and how many kinds ?
A. They are assemblies of the superiors of the Church to consult about faith, and other spiritual matters; and they are either universal, national, provincial, or diocesan.
Q. Who presides over them ?
A. The pope in a universal; the primate in a national; the metropolitan in a provincial; and the bishop in a diocesan.
Q. How many general councils do you reckon, and which are they ?
A. They are commonly computed these twenty. The eight first are called the Eastern or Greek general councils.
1. The council of Nice, held under Pope Silvester, anno 325, in which the Arian heresy was condemned.
2. The council of Constantinople, held under Pope Damascus, anno 381, against the Macedonians, Eunomians, and Apollinarists.
3. The council of Ephesus, held under Pope Celestinus I, anno 431, against the Nestorians.
4. The council of Chalcedon, held under Pope Leo I, anno 451, against the Eutychians.
5. The 2d council of Constantinople, held under Pope Virgilius, anno 553, against Origenists.
6. The 3d council of Constantinople, held under Pope Agatho, anno 680, against the Monothelites.
7. The 2d council of Nice, held under Pope Adrian I, anno 787, against the Iconoclasts.
8. The 4th council of Constantinople, held under Pope Adrian II, anno 869, against Photius.
The Western or Latin general councils.
9. The 1 st council of Lateran, held under Pope Calixtus II, anno 1122, for the recovery of the Holy Land.
10. The 2d council of Lateran, held under Pope Innocent II, anno 1139.
11. The 3d council of Lateran, held under Pope Alexander III, anno n79, against the Albigenses, who maintained the errors of the Manichaeans.
12. The 4th council of Lateran, held under Pope Innocent III, anno 1215, against the Waldenses and Albigensens.
13. The 1st council of Lyons, held under Pope Innocent IV, anno 1245, f° r ^ e recovery of Holy Land.
14. The 2d council of Lyons, held under Pope Gregory X, anno 1274, in which the
Greeks renounced their schism, but relapsed soon after.
15. The council of Vienne held under Pope Clement V, anno 1311, against the Dul-cinians and Beguardins, as also for the recovery of the Holy Land.
16. The council of Pisa, called in the time of Gregory XII, anno 1409, which put a stop to the schism, and deposed both the contending pontiffs, viz.: Gregory XII, and I Benedict XIII, and chose Alexander V, by whom this council was approved.
17. The council of Constance, held under Pope John XXIII, anno 1414, which broke the neck of the long schism, and condemned the errors of Wickliffe and Huss.
18. The council of Florence, held under Pope Eugenius IV, anno 1439, in which the Greeks renounced their schism.
19. The 5th council of Lateran, held under Pope Julius II, anno 1512, Pope Leo X, concluded it, anno 1517, for the recovery of the Holy Land. Some divines dispute whether this was a general council.
20. The council of Trent, held by Paul III, etc., anno 1545, against the errors of Luther and Calvin. Pope Pius IV, brought this council to a happy conclusion, anno 1563.